About Institute

2017

Publication

1115

Conference

359

Project/Grant

37

Intelligence Property

Vladimer Chavchanidze Institute of Cybernetics of the Georgian Technical University was established on October 3, 1960. Interdisciplinary fundamental and applied researches have been carried out at the Institute since its establishment. The goals of the institute in brief: • The control of quantum systems, construction of the elementary gates for quantum computer and investigation of the complexity for quantum and classical algorithms. Development of the theory of dynamic multiplicity logic for its application in neural networks; • Making representations of risk-neutral measures that are needed to calculate asset prices in incomplete markets, as well as providing methods for approximating them. Development of methods for predicting stochastic processes; • An investigation on the efficacy of using cybernetic methods in the mechanization task of selective picking of tea leaves; • Investigating the reception, processing, storage, and transmission of the information at the individual neuron level, and to investigate the effects of external electromagnetic fields on these processes; • Biomedical studies aimed at early diagnosis of cancer of urological organs; • Measurement and analysis of the functional properties of doped high-temperature superconductors and cobaltite thermoelectrics in order to improve their performance for large-scale applications; • A continuous technological line of information and automatic control for the synthesis of multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles was created at the institute. Consequently, the possibilities of treating cancerous diseases in living organisms are studied here; • Optical-spectroscopic study of biological objects. Quantum information and calculations based on spectroscopic transitions; • Study of optical, electro- and photo-optical properties of anisotropic materials such as semiconductors and liquid crystals. Investigation of the laser emission from the liquid crystals; • Develop technologies of obtaining new nanomaterials for their use in nanomaterials; • Photo- and thermochromic liquid crystals for visualization of optical and thermal fields. Controlled drug delivery systems. Visualization and destruction of tumor cells. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles based, environment purification films. Solar radiation concentrators; • The Polarization Holographic Research Laboratory carries out fundamental and applied investigations in optics, polarization holography, and optical materials, including full Stokes polarimetry based on the polarization-holographic diffraction element developed in the Laboratory.

Structural Units

1. Department of Mathematical Cybernetics 2. Department of Stochastic Analysis and Mathematical Modeling 3. Department of Applied Pattern Recognition Systems 4. Department of Biocybernetic Systems 5. Department of Computing Engineering Elements and Nanomaterials 6. Nanocomposites Laboratory 7. Department of Optics and Spectroscopy 8. Laboratory of Energy Efficient Technologies 9. Laboratory of Polarization-Holographic Studies 10. Department of Optically Controlled Anisotropic Systems 11. Laboratory of Thermo and Photochromic structures

Scientific Equipment

Title of the equipment/device Technical characteristics Date of issue Exploitation staring year Usage/application Purpose of usage/application Technical condition
Voltmeter В7-17 / Soviet Production 1-100 V; 1 kgom-10 Megaom 1974 1974 Measurement of voltage and resistance Scientific Working condition
Voltmeter В7-26 / Soviet Production 0.1-300 V 1975 1975 Voltage measurement Scientific Working condition
Voltmeter В7-26 / Soviet Production 0.1-300 V 1984 1984 Voltage measurement Scientific Working condition
Generator Г3-112/1 / Soviet Production 1-10⁵ Hz 1983 1983 Source of impulses Scientific Working condition
Generator Г3-112 / Soviet production 1-10⁵ Hz 1985 1985 Source of impulses Scientific Working condition
Power supply Б5-50 / Soviet Production 1-100 V 1987 1987 Direct current source Scientific Working condition
Power supply Б5-50 / Soviet Production 1-100 V 1987 1987 Direct current source Scientific Working condition
Monochromator МДР-2 / Soviet Production Infrared, ultraviolet 1972 1972 Spectral analysis Scientific Working condition
Monochromator МДР-3 / Soviet Production Infrared, ultraviolet 1974 1974 Spectral analysis Scientific Working condition
Millivoltmeter В3-36 / Soviet Production 3 millivolt -3V 1985 1985 Voltage measurement Scientific Working condition
Nanovoltmeter 273 / Poland 1 Microvolt-10 Millivolts 1985 1985 Voltage measurement Scientific Working condition
Spectrometer ИСК-21 / Soviet Production Infrared spectrometer 1969 1969 Spectral analysis Scientific Working condition
Amplifier У7-1 / Soviet production Frequency range 0-100 kHz, amplification coefficient for 600 ohm load is 10 dB-801 dB, amplification inaccuracy coefficient ± 0.1 dB. 1984 1984 Direct and alternating current's signal amplifier Scientific Working condition
Selective nanovoltmeter - 237 / Poland 1 Microvolt-100 Millivolts 1986 1986 Voltage measurement Scientific Working condition
Nanovoltmeter 232Б / Poland 1 Microvolt-30 Millivolts 1988 1988 Voltage measurement Scientific Working condition
Nanovoltmeter 232В / Poland 1 Microvolt-30 Millivolts 1987 1987 Voltage measurement Scientific Working condition
Analyser of real time scale ГДРО1012 / Poland 0.3 Millivolts-30 volt 1983 1983 Electrical signal analyzer Scientific Working condition
Generator Г3-112/1 / Soviet Production 1-10⁵ Hz 1988 1988 Source of impulses Scientific Working condition
Semiconductor strain gage Л2-56А / Soviet Production, Lvov Input voltage measurement range 1 mkW-400 megawatts, measurement error 3-5%, net voltage 220 ± 22 V, frequency 50 ± 5 Hz, 1988 1988 To measure the parameters of different semiconductors Scientific Depriciated
Teraohmmeter Е6-13А / Soviet Production 10²-10¹³ Ohm 1989 1989 Resistance measurement Scientific Working condition
Laser (Radiation meter) ОСИ-ЭМ / Soviet Production 1-100 joule; 1-100 watts 1989 1989 Measurement of laser radiation energy and its average power Scientific Working condition
Oscillograph С1-112А / Soviet Production 1 microsecond - 30 milliseconds 1989 1989 Electronic signals analyzer Scientific Working condition
Voltmeter В3-36 / Soviet Production 10 MV-1000 V 1989 1989 Voltage measurement Scientific Working condition
Power supply Б5-50 / Soviet Production 1V-100V 1989 1989 Direct current source Scientific Working condition
Dosimeter ИЛД-2М / Soviet Production 0.49-11 Micrometer 1989 1989 Measurement of laser radiation parameters Scientific Working condition
Generator ГВИ-2М / Soviet Production Voltage frequency 50 Hz, maximum output of pulse voltage: 20 kV on the first stage, 10 kV on the second stage, 5 kV on the third stage, power 1.5 kW, accumulation capacity 40 m. 1989 1989 To detect damage in high voltage networks, the voltage value is up to 35 kW. Scientific Working condition
Nanovoltmeter Р 237 / Soviet Production 1 Microvolt-100 Millivolts 1989 1989 Voltage measurement Scientific Working condition
Power supply Б5-49 / Soviet Production 0-400 V 1989 1989 Direct current source Scientific Working condition
Digital device Ф-266 / Soviet Production Voltage range ± 0.1 V, measurements per second 10, voltage error 0.1%, temperature error 0.2%, code output 8421, logical "1" from 2V to 5.25V, logical "0" - from 0.4V to 0.8V -till. Voltage 220 V, frequency 50 Hz, power 45 V 1990 1990 Direct current measurement, temperature measurement by thermocouples Scientific Working condition
Voltmeter В7-37 / Soviet Production 1000 V; 10 Megaom 1990 1990 Measurement of voltage and resistance Scientific Working condition
Voltmeter В7-36 / Soviet Production 10 MV – 1000 V 1981 1981 Voltage measurement Scientific Working condition
Voltmeter В7-26 / Lviv, ЗАПАДПРИБОР Direct Current voltage measurement range 30MV-300V, error ± 2% 1977 1977 Measures AC and DC voltagse as well as DC resistance Scientific Working condition
Goniometer Г-5 / Soviet Production Error in a singular way - 5¹¹ ,Error of measuring a pyramidal angle - 10¹¹ 1984 1984 Angle measuring Scientific Working condition
Voltmeter В7-35 / Lviv, ЗАПАДПРИБОР Measures direct current voltage up to 1000 V, sinusoidal voltage up to 1000 V, constant current resistance 10 ohms, measurement error of direct current ±0.2% , alternating current (± 0.4 + 3)% 1985 1985 Is used for measuring AC and DC current's resistance Scientific Working condition
Oscillograph OWON SDS82022 / China Horizontal scale (S / div) 1ns / div ~ 100s / div, step by1 ~ 2 ~ 5 Front growth time ≤1.17ns Display: 8 ”color LCD, 800x600 pixels, 65535 number of color channels: 2 + 1 (external synchronization) Recording duration: Max.10 M Input modes: DC, AC, Ground. Input impedance 1MΩ ± 2%, parallel to 10 pF ± 5pF Channel isolation: 50MHz: 100: 1, 10MHz: 40: 1 Max. Input voltage: 400V (PK-PK) (DC + AC PK-PK) M.D. Growth accuracy ± 3% M.D. Average accuracy 16: ± (3% rdg + 0.05 div) for △ V Correction according to the sample coefficient: 1X, 10X, 100X, 1000X Vertical resolution: (A / D) 8 bit resolution (2 Channels simultaneously) Vertical Sensitivity: 2mV / div ~ 10V / div Communication interface: USB, USBflash disk storage, Pass / fail, Lan 2017 2017 Used to observe, measure and record the amplitude and frequency parameters of electrical signals Scientific Operational/working condition
Lathe Machine ТВИ-1-3 / Soviet Production, Rostov factory, МАГСО Processing diameter 200 mm, distance between centers 300 mm, the depth of processing 16 mm, electronic motor power 0.6 kW, frequency range 120-710 rp/m 1956 1956 Educational lathe machine, used for all type of lathe purposes, as well as for school learning Scientific/Industrial Working condition
Monochrome ДМР-4 / Soviet Production 250nm- 2500nm 1961 1961 Spectroscopy Scientific Operational-working condition
Holographic table УНК / Soviet Production Whole laser spectrum in the visible area from 200 till 5000 nanometer 1980 1980 Optics, holography Scientific Operational-working condition
MillivoltmeterВ3-5 / Soviet Production 1-300V 1969 1969 Electronic measurements Scientific Operational-working condition
MillivoltmeterВ3-56 / Soviet Production 1-300V 1976 1976 Electronic measurements Scientific Operational-working condition
MillivoltmeterВ3-56 / Soviet Production 1-300V 1976 1976 Electronic measurements Scientific Operational-working condition
Pulses generator Г5-63 / Soviet Production 0-1mHz 1981 1981 Electronic measurements Scientific Operational-working condition
Frequency meter Ч3-44 / Soviet Production 0.1-100mHz 1985 1985 Electronic measurements Scientific Operational-working condition
Pulse generator Г5-54 / Soviet Production 0-1mHz 1968 1968 Electronic measurements Scientific Operational-working condition
Power module Б5-49 / Soviet Production 0-300V 1987 1987 Electronic measurements Scientific Operational-working condition
Power module Б5-50 / Soviet Production 0-99V 1987 1987 Electronic measurements Scientific Operational-working condition
Oscillograph TDS8104 / Foreign, Company name - OWON, WWW.OWON.COM.CN 10Hz-100მHz 2018 2018 Electronic measurements Scientific Operational-working condition
Derivatograph / Hungary Temperature range 1400 ° C; Heating rate up to 0.6 ° C-20 ° C in min; Measurement interval 0.5-10 g ;Error 1% at 20 mg, 50 to 100 mg at 0.5%. 1968 1968 Used for simultaneous performance of hermeneutic and thermogravimetric analysis Scientific Depriciated
Derivatograph /Hungary Temperature range 1400 ° C; Heating rate up to 0.6 ° C-20 ° C in min; Measurement interval 0.5-10 g ;Error 1% at 20 mg, 50% to 100 mg at 0.5%. 1970 1970 Used for simultaneous performance of hermeneutic and thermogravimetric analysis Scientific Depriciated
Analytical Balance AS22OR2 / Poland Maximum capacity 220g , Readability 0.0001g 2018 2018 Is used for weighing chemicals Scientific Operational-working condition
Technical scales AMW-2000 /USA Weighing range up to 10 g to 6800 g. Measures to 1.25 g accuracy (Medium Accuracy Class) 2018 2018 Measurement of loose substances Scientific Operational-working condition
Melting machine MPA / India MART The highest temperature of melting 300°C 2008 2008 Used for investigating the melting temperature of a substance Scientific Operational-working condition
Voltage source Б5-10 / Soviet Production Regulated constant voltage + H72: H118A in the range of 2-300V 1976 1976 Power supply of radio circuits Scientific Operational-working condition
Incandescence voltage source Б2-1 / Soviet Production Variable voltage 2-220 V 1976 1976 Power supply for radio equipment Scientific Operational-working condition
Transistor tester Л2-38 / Soviet Production Frequency: 100; 250; 400 mHz. Measurement range: (0.5 ... 30) Ma. Ids = 50 Ma 1986 1986 Measurement of static parameters of the transistors Scientific Operational-working condition
Transistor tester Л2-38 / Soviet Production Frequency: 100; 250; 400 mHz. Measurement range: (0.5 ... 30) Ma. Ids = 50 Ma 1986 1986 Measurement of static parameters of the transistors Scientific Operational-working condition
Spectrophotometer СФ-26-01 / Soviet Production Working range 190-1100nm. Light sources: hydrogen lamp in the ultraviolet range and incandescent lamp. A quartz prism is used for light dispersion 1980 1980 Measurement of light absorption in the range of 190–1100 nm Scientific Operational-working condition
Machine УМРЗ / Soviet Production A three-electrode plasma system used for the coating. Target voltage 5 kV. Anodic current - 5 A. Discharge current - 500 mA. Vacuum 10-5 torus 1966 1966 Coating of thin dielectric, semiconductor and metal tapes Scientific Operational-working condition
Frequency meter Ф-5043 / Soviet Production Frequency measurement in the 25–20000Hz range 1980 1980 Frequency measurement in electrical circuits Scientific Operational-working condition
Frequency meter Ф-5043 / Soviet Production Frequency measurement in the 25–20000Hz range 1980 1980 Frequency measurement in electrical circuits Scientific Operational-working condition
Vacuum splashing unit УВН-78 Д-1 / Soviet Production Mechanical and diffusions pumps. Maximum vacuum 2 × 10-5 tor. Laying temperature 500˚C. 1966 1966 Coating of thin films of metal and dielectrics by thermal evaporation Scientific Operational-working condition
Tester Л2-54 /Tester Л2-54 / Soviet Production Soviet Production Modes of measurement: Transistors : I e = 1mA, I e = 5 mA; - U k = 4.5 V, U k = 4.5; LEDs: I pr = 5 mA, 100 mA (from an internal source); I pr = 5 mA, 300 mA (from external sources); U mod = 10V-400V; 1983 1983 Measurement of radiodetail parameters Scientific Operational-working condition
Oscillograph С8-14 / Soviet Production Recording speed 3000 km / s; Running band: not more than 50 m Hz; Procreation time: 40 sec. 1983 1983 Electronic signals analyzer Scientific Depriciated
Lathe Machine ТВ-320 / Soviet Production Lathe - thread-cutting machine. Power: 2.5 kW; Speed: 2000 rpm; Maximum diameter of workpeace: -320 mm. Longitudinal displacement of the cutter: 0.03-0.49 mm / in rotation 1962 1962 Production of metal parts for technological and experimental studies Scientific Operational-working condition
Source Б5-24 / Soviet Production Stabilized constant voltage source. Max. 400V. 1978 1978 Power supply of electrical measuring circuits Scientific Working condition
Power supply Б5-43 / Soviet Production Direct Current power source. 10V, 2A. 1983 1983 Power supply of electrical measuring circuits Scientific Working condition
Drilling machine НС-12А / Soviet Production Rotation speed: 450, 710, 1400, 2500, 4500 rpm; Maximum diameter: 12 mm; Drilling Max. Depth: 100 mm. 1961 1961 Drilling works Scientific Working condition
Lathe Machine 1Е-61М / Soviet Production Lathe - thread-cutting machine. Cutting inch and metric screws. Power 4.5 kW; Number of rotation 1335 rpm; Maximum size of the detail to be processed 320 mm; 1962 1962 Production of metal parts for technological and experimental studies Scientific Working condition
Polishing lathe / Soviet Production Maximum number of rotations - 1500 / min. The diameter of the table is 50 cm. 1980 1980 Polishing of glass and quartz optics Scientific Depriciated
Generatot Г3-112 / Soviet Productio Low frequency generator 10 Hz-10 GHz 1988 1988 To generate a measurement signal Scientific Working condition
Power supply Б5-49 / Soviet Production Direct Current power source. Output maximum voltage 100 V, current 1 A. 1987 1987 Power supply of electrical measuring circuits Scientific Working condition
Milliammeter Е6-18/1 / Soviet Production Milliammeter in the range of 0.1ohm -100ohm 1986 1986 Measurement of resistance of electrical tools and components Scientific Working condition
Thermometer 790 (kb) PIROMETR AXIOMETR:1 (AX-7531)/AXIOMET Poland Pyrometer, Max. Temperature 800 ° C 2015 2015 Temperature measurement in technological processes and experiments Scientific Working condition
Power supply multimeter keithey 2400/Tektronix USA Maximum power supply - 1 a. Voltage - 200 V. Minimum measured current - 1 Pa, voltage - 100 Na 2016 2016 Measurement of tool parameters based on nanomaterials Scientific Working condition
Philips CM12 electron microscope / Netherlands Transmission electron microscope . acceleration voltage 120kV. Cathode LaB6 1992 2019 Studies the morphology and structure of exact dimensions of nanomaterials Scientific Working condition
Voltmeter В7-26 / Soviet Production Measurement of direct current voltage: 30 мВ - 300 В (0,3-1-3-10-30-100-300 В); Basic measurement error: 2.5% (in all subranges); AC voltage measurement range at low frequency input (20Hz - 20Hz) From the input: 200 millivolts - 300 volts (1-3-10-30-100-300V); Basic measurement error: 4%; Resistance measurement range from 10 Ohm - 1000 MOhm (0.1 - 1 - 10-100 kg; 1 - 10-100 mg); Basic error not more than 2.5%; 1982 1985 Measurement of AC and DC current voltage under laboratory testing conditions Scientific Working condition
Voltmeter Universal В7-26 / Soviet Production Measurement of direct current voltage: 30 мВ - 300 В (0,3-1-3-10-30-100-300 В); Basic measurement error: 2.5% (in all subranges); AC voltage measurement range at low frequency input (20Hz - 20Hz) From the input: 200 millivolts - 300 volts (1-3-10-30-100-300V); Basic measurement error: 4%; Resistance measurement range from 10 Ohm - 1000 MOhm (0.1 - 1 - 10-100 kg; 1 - 10-100 mg); Basic error not more than 2.5%; 1982 1982 Testing of radio equipment in laboratory as well as field conditions Scientific Working condition
Generatot МГИ-2 (Г5-15) / Soviet Production Duration of pulses of both polarities: from 0.1 μs to 10 μs; Pulse sequence frequency: from 40 Hz to 10000 Hz; Power supply: 220 V, 50 Hz; Power consumption: 200 watts; Dimensions: 405 × 315 × 215 mm; Weight: 12 kg. 1973 1973 Testing of radio equipment in laboratory and field conditions. Scientific Working condition
Power supply Б5-9 / Soviet Production Output voltage operating range: 2 to 100 volts; Permissible value of load current: 1 amp; Power supply voltage of the device: 220 ± 22 V, 50 ± 0.5 Hz; 1973 1973 Power supply of radio circuits and devices with stabilized constant voltage Scientific Working condition
Universal Lathe Machine / Ulyanovsk's Machine-Building Factor Lightweight lathe machine, eelectornic engine power 4.5 kW, speed 335 rp/m 1965 1965 For high precision lathe operations Scientific Working condition
Universal tec milling lathe 675 / Soviet Production Work table area 200 х 500; Maximum horizontal movement of the table 320 mm; Maximum vertical movement of the table 300 mm; 1962 1962 Production of high precision details under laboratory conditions Scientific Requires repairment
Oscillograph 736A OSCIL.X1 ST16B / China Power supply voltage: 220 V, 50 Hz 2015 2015 Oscillograph allows observation and correction of signal shape during electronic circuit processing Scientific Operational/working condition
Multimeter 769 (KB) TES SINO MS8209 / China Constant voltage: 400 m / 4/40/400/600 V: ± 0.7% Variable voltage: 400 m / 4/40/400 V: ± 0.8%, 600 V: ± 1.0% Resistance: 400 / 4k / 40k / 400k / 4m: ± 1.2%; 40 min: ± 2.0% Capacity: 4 n / 40 n / 400 n / 4 mc / 40 mc / 200 mc: ± 3.0% Temperature: -20 ° С -400 ° С: ± 3.0% (0.1 ° С), 20 ° С - 1000 ° С: ± 3.0% (1 ° С) Dimensions: 158 x 78 x 39 mm. 2015 2015 When working on electronic circuits (including in field conditions) as well as carrying out electrical measurements. Scientific Operational/working condition
Lathe machine desk universe A-4020 / BERNARDO, AUSTRIA Power 250 watts; Frequency 50 Hz ; Danny 2 A; Weight 36 kg. 2016 2016 For turnery purposes Scientific Operational/working condition
Voltmeter В3-43 / Soviet Production AC Voltmeter 3 mV-300V 10 kHz-1000 MHz 1987 1987 AC voltage measurement Scientific/Educational Operational/working condition
Goniometer ГС-5 / Soviet Production Focus distance. 400 mm Beam diameter 50 mm Magnify * 50 1978 1978 Angle measuring Scientific Operational/working condition
Goniometer ГС-5 / Soviet Production Focus distance. 400 mm Beam diameter 50 mm Magnify * 50 1978 1978 Angle measuring Scientific Working condition/Zero usage
Laser (Quantum generator) ЛГ 106-М / Soviet Production Ar + laser Λ(nm): 458,476,488,496,502,514 Power 1 watt 1982 1982 Laser radiation Scientific Requires repairment
Power supply Б5-24 / Soviet Production Direct current supply Voltage 200-400V Current 5მA 1979 1979 Direct current source Scientific Operational/working condition
Power supply Б5-50 / Soviet Production Direct current supply Voltage 1-299V Current 0,001-0,299 A 1980 1980 Direct current source Scientific Operational/working condition
Power supply Б5-50 / Soviet Production Direct current supply Voltage 1-299V Current 0,001-0,299 A 1979 1979 Direct current source Scientific Operational/working condition
Laser ЛТН-102В (Remade) / Soviet Production Nd + : Y3 Al 5 O12's impulsive laser 20 nanosecond, impulse energyა 2,5 milli joule 1980 1980 Laser radiation Scientific Requires repairment
Microvoltmeter В3-40 / Soviet Production Alternating voltage meter 10 mc-300V Frequency: 5 Hz - 5 MHz 1978 1978 Alternating voltage measurement Scientific/Educational Operational/working condition
Monochromator УМ-2 / Soviet Production Working range from 380 to 1000 nm; Spectral colors: violet, blue violet, light blue, green, yellow, red. 1979 1979 Light dispersion Scientific/Educational Working condition/Zero usage
Drilling lathe ИС-12А / Soviet Production Table drilling lathe 1962 1962 Mechanical workshop Scientific Operational/working condition
Lathe СД-2 / Soviet Production Polishing Machine 1967 1967 Optical workshop Scientific Operational/working condition
Glass grinding machine А/14001-7 / Soviet Production Slice Machine Tool 1965 1965 Optical workshop Scientific Operational/working condition
Spectrograph ИСП-30 / Soviet Production Working range 200-600 nm 1980 1980 Fixation of the radiation spectrum Scientific Operational/working condition
Spectrograph DFS-452 (converted to spectrometer) / Soviet Production Working range 190-1100 nm 1982 1982 Record spectra Scientific Operational/working condition
Voltmeter В3-57 / Soviet Production AC Voltmeter Operating Range 10MV-300V; 5H-5MH 1980 1980 AC voltage measurement Scientific Operational/working condition
Oscillograph С1-81 / Soviet Production Single channel. Frequency 0-20m Hz; Time 18 sec 1979 1979 Visualize and measure periodic signals Scientific Operational/working condition
Generator Г6-26 / Soviet Production Frequency 0.001 Hz-1000 Hz Voltage 1mL-10V 1980 1980 Special form of electric-pulse generator Scientific Operational/working condition
Power supply Б5-50 / Soviet Production Direct current supply Voltage 1-299V Current 0,001-0,299 A 1982 1982 Direct current source Scientific Operational/working condition
Amplifier У7-3 /Soviet production Direct and alternating current's amplifier. Frequency 0-1MHz. Amplification 1-10 1984 1984 Direct and alternating current's amplifier Scientific Operational/working condition
Oscillograph С1-122 a/2 / Soviet Production Frequency 0-100m Hz Time 5 sec / compartment -50 sec / compartment 1986 1986 Visualize and measure periodic signals Scientific Operational/working condition
Power supply Б5-49 / Soviet Production Direct current supply Voltage 0,1-99,9V Current 0,001-0,999 A 1988 1988 Direct current source Scientific Operational/working condition
Power supply Б5-47 / Soviet Production Direct current supply Voltage 0,1-29,9V Current 0,01-2,99A 1988 1988 Direct current source Scientific Operational/working condition
Nanovoltmeter В2-38 / Soviet Production Constant current voltage meter 1 Nv-2V 1989 1989 Smaller voltage measurement Scientific Operational/working condition
Voltmeter В7-34А / Soviet Production From 0.1 to 1000 V; Frequency 50 Hz 1989 1989 AC voltage measurement Scientific Operational/working condition
Voltmeter В7-34А / Soviet Production From 0.1 to 1000 V; Frequency 50 Hz 1989 1989 AC voltage measurement Scientific Operational/working condition
Microvoltmeter В6-9 / Soviet Production Selective microvoltmeter voltage 1 mkV - 10 V; Frequency 20 Hz-100 kHz 1990 1990 Measurement of the Alternating voltage by frequency selection Scientific Operational/working condition
Microvoltmeter В6-9 / Soviet Production Selective microvoltmeter voltage 1 mkV - 10 V; Frequency 20 Hz-100 kHz 1990 1990 Measurement of the Alternating voltage by frequency selection Scientific Operational/working condition
Microvoltmeter В6-9 / Soviet Production Selective microvoltmeter voltage 1 mkV - 10 V; Frequency 20 Hz-100 kHz 1990 1990 Measurement of the Alternating voltage by frequency selection Scientific Operational/working condition
Microvoltmeter В6-9 / Soviet Production Selective microvoltmeter voltage 1 mkV - 10 V; Frequency 20 Hz-100 kHz 1990 1990 Measurement of the Alternating voltage by frequency selection Scientific Operational/working condition
Voltage source Б5-49 / Soviet Production DC power source Voltage 0.1-9.9V Power 0.01-4.99 a 1988 1988 Direct current source Scientific Operational/working condition
Voltage source Б5-49 / Soviet Production DC power source Voltage 0.1-9.9V Power 0.01-4.99 a 1988 1988 Direct current source Scientific Operational/working condition
Constant voltage amplifier У5-11А / Soviet Production DC power amplification 10-15-10-2 voltage gain 10-4-2 * 102 1989 1989 Amplifier of constant voltage Scientific Operational/working condition
Constant voltage amplifier У5-11А / Soviet Production DC power amplification 10-15-10-2 voltage gain 10-4-2 * 102 1989 1989 Amplifier of constant voltage Scientific Operational/working condition
Amplifier У7-6 / Soviet production Differential amplifier range 0-300kHz 1988 1988 Wide range differential amplifier Scientific Operational/working condition
Constant voltage amplifier Ф-8025 / Soviet Production Voltage 220 V, frequency 50 Hz, power 7 V / A; Input resistance 10 ohm 1988 1988 Amplifier Scientific Operational/working condition
Constant voltage amplifier Ф-8025 С/12 / Soviet Production Voltage 220 V, frequency 50 Hz, power 7 V / A; Input resistance 10 ohm 1989 1989 Amplifier Scientific Operational/working condition
Power supply Б5-43А / Soviet Production Direct current supply Voltage 0-10V Current 0-3A 1990 1990 Direct current source Scientific Operational/working condition
Comparator3003 / Soviet Production Calibrated voltage range: 10 NV-11,111V Amplification 20 NV-10V Load 5 Ma 1988 1988 Comparison and measurement of voltage Scientific Operational/working condition
Oscillograph С1-103 / Soviet Production Biradial Front length 100-170sq Frequency range 20Hz-10m Hz 1988 1988 Visualize and measure periodic signals Scientific Requires repairment
Generator Г3-122 / Soviet Production Low frequency generator 0.001 Hz-20 MHz Sinusoidal, rectangular 1989 1989 Low frequency generator Scientific Operational/working condition
Generator Г3-122 / Soviet Production Generator Г3-122 / Soviet Production 1989 1989 Low frequency generator Scientific Operational/working condition
Power supply Б5-48 / Soviet Production Direct current supply Voltage 0,1-49,9V Current 0,001-0,999A 1989 1989 Direct current source Scientific Operational/working condition
Power supply Б5-48 / Soviet Production Direct current supply Voltage 0,1-49,9V Current 0,001-0,999A 1989 1989 Direct current source Scientific Operational/working condition
Power supply Б5-48 / Soviet Production Direct current supply Voltage 0,1-49,9V Current 0,001-0,999A 1989 1989 Direct current source Scientific Operational/working condition
Power supply Б5-47 / Soviet Production Direct current supply Voltage 0,1-29,9V Current 0,01-2,99A 1989 1989 Direct current source Scientific Operational/working condition
Power supply Б5-46 / Soviet Production Direct current supply Voltage 0,01-9,99V Current 0,01-4,99A 1988 1988 Direct current source Scientific Operational/working condition
Nanovoltmeter 232 / Soviet Production Selective Nanovoltmeter Frequency 1Hz-100k Hz 1990 1990 Measurement of variable voltage by frequency selection Scientific Requires repairment
Magnetic induction meter РШ1-10 / Soviet Production Magnetic induction meter 0.01 tl-2 tl 1989 1989 Measurement of magnetic induction. For magnets and solenoids Scientific Operational/working condition
Electronic Noise Rate Meter 1/5 28 / Soviet Production Noise coefficient measurement Working range 25.84 gHz-37.5 gHz 1989 1989 Measurement of noise coefficient Scientific Operational/working condition
Microvibrometer Ф-191 / Soviet Production A microwave meter is a measuring machine for small magnetic fluxes. Range: 0-2000 Mcb 1989 1989 Measurement of small magnetic fluxes Scientific Operational/working condition
Amplifier Ф-8024 /Societ production Voltage 220 V, frequency 50 Hz, power 5 V / A; Input resistance 10 ohm 1990 1990 Amplifier Scientific Operational/working condition
Magnetic Induction Measurement -1-9 / Soviet Production Magnetic induction meter. 25-2500 mm for magnets and 57-700 mm for solenoids 1989 1989 Measurement of magnetic induction. For magnets and solenoids Scientific Operational/working condition
Measuring noise coefficient Х5-29 / Soviet Production Noise coefficient measurement Working range 1gHz-4gHz Noise coefficient 0-30dB 1990 1990 Measurement of noise coefficient Scientific Operational/working condition
Measurement of impedance Е7-14 / Soviet Production Impedance measuring ranges Capacity 0.001 pf-1f Inductance 1 NHz Impedance 0.1m-1hp 1990 1990 Measurement of impedance Scientific Operational/working condition
Microvoltmeter В6-9 / Soviet Production Selective microvoltmeter voltage 1 mkV - 10 V; Frequency 20 Hz-100 kHz 1990 1990 Measurement of the Alternating voltage by frequency selection Scientific Operational/working condition
Power supply Б5-45А / Soviet Production Direct current supply Voltage 0,01-49,9V Current 0-0,5A 1990 1990 Direct current source Scientific Operational/working condition
Voltage separator В-3027 / Soviet Production Separator coefficients 10; 100; 1000 1990 1990 Voltage separator Scientific Operational/working condition
Calibrator П-321 / Soviet Production DC power calibrator, Voltage: 10 mV-10V 1990 1990 Power program calibration Scientific Operational/working condition
Generator Г4-83 / Soviet Production High frequency signal generator 5 GHz-10.5 GHz 1990 1990 To generate high frequency signals Scientific Operational/working condition
Measurement machine К2-4 / Soviet Production High frequency conductor phase and modulus measurement Frequency: 4 gHz-5.5 gHz Wavelength: 7.5 cm-5.4 cm 1990 1990 Measurement of waveguide phase and modulus Scientific Operational/working condition
Amplifier 0001 / Soviet production Voltage 220 V, frequency 50 Hz, working range 8-18 Hz, input power 2 MW , output power 360 MW. 1990 1990 Amplifier of power Scientific Operational/working condition
Analogic digital converter 77077 / Soviet Production Comprises 10 channels, conversion frequency 4000 counts / sec. This happens when all ten channels are connected simultaneously. Input signal range from 0 to 3.3V. Rating АЦП 12 bits. 1990 1990 An analogous digital converting of electrical signals Scientific Operational/working condition
Analogic digital converter 77077 / Soviet Production Comprises 10 channels, conversion frequency 4000 counts / sec. This happens when all ten channels are connected simultaneously. Input signal range from 0 to 3.3V. Rating АЦП 12 bits. 1990 1990 An analogous digital converting of electrical signals Scientific Operational/working condition
Measurement Щ1-9 / Soviet Production Magnetic induction meter. For magnets 25-2500 mtl and for solenoids 57-700mtl 1990 1990 Measurement of magnetic induction. For magnets and solenoids Scientific Operational/working condition
Optical desk ОСК-2 / Soviet Production Lens diameter 150 mm; Lens focal length 1600 mm. 1980 1980 Optical stands and clamps Scientific Operational/working condition
A set of micromanipulators / Soviet Production Movement in the direction of the track 40 mm, movement in the direction of the track 30 mm, movement in the direction of the track 30 mm, accuracy 1/100 mm 1975 1975 Used for microscopic displacement of microelectrodes Scientific Operational/working condition
Special form signal generator Г6-27 / Soviet Production 220 V, 50 Hz 30 V/A 1983 1983 Source of impulses Scientific Zero Usage/Depreciated
Low frequency generator Г3-118 / Soviet Production 200 volts, 50 hertz, 50 volts ampere, 400 hertz 1983 1983 Source of impulses Scientific Zero Usage/Depreciated
Low frequency generator Г3-36А / Soviet Production requency 0-200 KHz, Output voltage 5 mv-5 V 1978 1978 Source of impulses Scientific Zero Usage/Depreciated
Oscillograph SMART SDS8302 / Batronix, Germany Bandwidth 200 MHZ, Sample rate, 2GSa/s; memory depth per channel 10 mpts. Additional interface VGA, display 8" TFT LCD with 65535 colors. Interfaces USB PC Connection. 2017 2017 Used to observe and study biological potentials Scientific Operational/working condition
Stimulator of constant current EF 180 EU / ADINSTRUMENT, Australia Connection type: Two shrouded 4 mm sockets Configuration: Rectangular, monophasic pulses with software-set pulse amplitude and duration Safety: A single multi-colour indicator displays the isolated stimulator status. Safety switch: I voltage: 100 V fixed Current ranges: 100 µA, 1 mA, or 10 mA full scale Current rise time 2018 2018 Used to stimulate power pulses in various biological objects Scientific Operational/working condition
Fiber optic illuminator / Am Scope, USA 150W powerful halogen illumination, Fiber optic cool light with intensity control, 22" long dual gooseneck lights, Forced air cooling system, 150 Watt Halogen Variable Intensity Fiber Optic Light Source,High Intensity 24V/150W Quartz Halogen Bulb, 3200 Degrees Kelvin Lamp, Durable Metal Construction 2018 2018 Used to illuminate the biological cells which are under study Scientific Operational/working condition
Current and voltage sourcee / Voltgraft, Germany Power 22.5 W, Technology –Linear regulated PSU, Weight 1.9kg, inputs ICE 320 c14, type – bench, output voltage 15 V dc, sizes: 88x153x167, Connections-4 mms security sockets 2018 2018 Used for powering various circuits and electrical circuits Scientific Operational/working condition
Intracellular electrometer IE-251 A / (Warner Instruments), USA 220-260 volts, 50-60 Hz, 0.017 amps 2018 2018 Used to enhance the biopotentials of neurons for their further observation Scientific Operational/working condition
Laboratric electrical (analytical) scale BASE BA2004B / Biobase Biodustry (Shandong) Co LTD, China AC110/220V±10%, 50/60Hz; Power Cord, no battery. capacity: 0~200g; Readability: 0.1mg 2018 2018 Used to balance various chemicals that are further used in biological studies Scientific Operational/working condition
Water distiller AE LAB YAZD-10 / ARY Group, China 4 gallons per day (16 liters): Size: width 20 cm height 36 cm, weight 3.5 kg chamber capacity 4 l, stainless steel; Collecting container glass 4 l. Voltage 220 V 50 Hz 2018 2018 Used for water distillation, without which biological studies are impossible Scientific Operational/working condition
Portable video cystoscope C41 / Zuhai Minhao Technology Co Ltd, China Battery 3.7 Li-ion, 100-240 V 50-60 HZ, 70VA 2019 2019 Used to study prostate and urinary cancer Scientific Operational/working condition
Power supply Б5-45 / Soviet Production Output voltage range 0.1-49.9 V; Output current power range 0.001-0.499 A (amps); Output voltage regulation steps 100 mv (mV); Solution Power step adjustment steps 1 ma (mA); Solution voltage error - installation accuracy ± 0.5%; Solution power force error ± 1.0%. 1986 1986 Constant adjustable voltage source; Adjustable Direct Current power source Scientific Operational/working condition
Measurement of the devices Р-4833 / Soviet Production Accuracy class of the device in case of its use: 1. As a constant current of 0.1; 2. as a constant current potentiometer 0.05; 3. As a resistance shop 0.02 / 1.5 • 10¯⁴. Range: 10¯⁴ to 10⁶ ohm when measuring its resistance as a bogir. 1988 1988 Universal Device for bridge resistance measurement, used to replace (adjust) an obstacle in a survey circuit Scientific Operational/working condition
Megometer Е6-16 / Soviet Production, Lvov Measurement range 2 ohms-200 megawatts, error 1.5%, weight 1.9 kg. 1986 1986 To measure the direct current resistance Scientific Operational/working condition
Autotransformer АОСН-20-220-75-44 /Ukraine, Lvov Voltage 220 V, frequency 50-60 Hz, number of phases 1, idle current no more than 3 A, idle loss 50 watts, number of adjustable circuits 2, weight no more than 43 kg. 2000 2000 For dim regulation of AC voltage, nominal frequency 50 Hz. Scientific Operational/working condition
Generator Г3-33 / Soviet Production, Lvov Frequency range up to 20000 Hz-200000 Hz. The output resistance of the generator is calculated for the agreed load, 6, 60, 600, 6000 ohms. Required power not more than 150 watts. 1985 1985 For the study and regulation of low-frequency radio equipment Scientific Operational/working condition
Voltmeter В7-26 / Soviet Production 30mV-300V 1969 1969 Voltage measurement Scientific Operational/working condition
Voltmeter В3-13 / Soviet Production 0.5mV - 300V 1983 1983 Voltage measurement Scientific Operational/working condition
Generator Г3-33 / Soviet Production 20Hz-200kHz 1970 1970 Sound frequency generation Scientific Operational/working condition
Generator Г3-56 / Soviet Production 20Hz-200kHz 1970 1970 Sound frequency generation Scientific Operational/working condition
Power supply Б5-31 / Soviet Production 30V, 2A 1970 1970 Constant voltage source Scientific Operational/working condition
Power supply Б5-30 / Soviet Production 50V, 1.2A 1970 1970 Constant voltage source Scientific Operational/working condition
MillivoltmeterВ3-38 / Soviet Production 100mcV - 300V 1971 1971 Alternating voltage measurement Scientific Operational/working condition
MillivoltmeterВ3-38 / Soviet Production 100mcV - 300V 1971 1971 Alternating voltage measurement Scientific Operational/working condition
Microscope МИН-8 / Soviet Production Magnification 17.5-1350. Polarizing 1970 1970 Study of patterns in polarized light Scientific Operational/working condition
Capacitance bridge Е8-2 / Soviet Production 10pF-100mcF 1970 1970 measurement of capacitance Scientific Operational/working condition
Millivoltmeter В3-40 / Soviet Production 10mcV - 300V 1969 1969 Alternating voltage measurement Scientific Operational/working condition
Oscillograph С1-94 / Soviet Production 10mV - 300V, 0.1mcs-0.5s 1985 1985 Receiving oscillograms Scientific Operational/working condition
Interface microscope Epival / Soviet Production Magnification 32-1000. Non-polarizing, binocular 1971 1971 Study of microscopic objects Scientific Operational/working condition
Lathe Machine ТВШ-3 / Soviet Production Maximum diameter - 100 mm 1971 1971 Carrying out turnery work Scientific Requires repairment
Power supply Б5-31 / Soviet Production 30V, 2A 1971 1971 Constant voltage source Scientific Operational/working condition
Power supply Б5-49 / Soviet Production 100V, 1A 1970 1970 Constant voltage source Scientific Operational/working condition
Vacuum post ВУП-5 / Soviet Production 10‑3 Pа 1988 1988 Vacuum coating Scientific Operational/working condition
Holographic device УИГ-12 / Soviet Production Weight 1500 kg, 2200 mm x 1500 mm 1970 1970 Setting up optical circuits Scientific Operational/working condition
Machine УИГ-22М / Soviet Production Weight 1500 kg, 2200 mm x 1500 mm 1970 1970 Setting up optical circuits Scientific Operational/working condition
Spectrophotometer UV-VIS / Perkin-Elmer, USA 300nm-800nm 2005 2005 Optical conductivity measurement Scientific Operational/working condition
Low frequency generator Г3-109 / Soviet Production 20Hz-200kHz 1987 1987 Sound frequency generation Scientific Operational/working condition
Optical microscope CSMD828S30 / China Magnification 40-2000. Non-polarizing, binocular 2015 2015 Study of micro objects Scientific Operational/working condition
Microscope OMAX M83FLRC140U3 / China Magnification: 100X,200X,400X,1000X. 2015 2015 Optical-polarization experiments Scientific Operational/working condition
Spectrophotometer (KB) / China 400 nm - 800 nm, single beam 2015 2015 Measurement of light spectra Scientific Operational/working condition
Compression(Load 10 tons) / Czech Republic Capacity 12 t; Pressure force 120 kN; Pressure size 600x800x1460 mm; Weight 88 kg. 2003 2016 Forming of samples of loose materials Scientific Operational/working condition
Multimeter Hioki im3523 / Hioki, Japan Impedance measurement in the frequency range from 5 mV to 5 V from 40 Hz to 200 Hz. 2018 2018 Impedance measurement Scientific Operational/working condition
Drying oven pol-EKO SLN 180 STD g oven / Poland Digitally controlled, room temperature range from 300˚C to 0,1˚C with accuracy. 2018 2018 Coating and drying of polymer and non-polymer films Scientific Operational/working condition
Nitrogen laser / Germany Wavelength 337 nanometers, power peak 100 kW, pulse duration 2.5 nanoseconds 2018 2018 Generation of light pulses Scientific Operational/working condition
Spectrophotometer avaspec ULS4096CL EVO / Netherlands 350-800nm, resolution 0.2nm 2018 2018 Measurement of optical spectra Scientific Operational/working condition
Laser / China 532nm, 10ns, 1J 2019 2019 Pumping on laser dyes Scientific Operational/working condition
Goniometer Г-5 / Soviet production Collimator magnification -40 X Lens focal length - 400 mm Lens diameter - 50 mm Autoclimator view area - 50 mm Auto collimator resolution limit -30 ° Price of optical microcircuit scale unit -1 >> Marginal error when measuring angle -5 ° Marginal error when measuring the angle of the pyramid - 10 >> Dimensions - 610 X260X370 mm Weight - 30 kg 1981 1981 Is a laboratory type control measuring device. Used to measure the angles of a prism and the pyramid, as well as inbetween angels of the normals of a flat polished, transparent and intransparent bodies Scientific Zero Usage
Voltmeter В2-27 / Soviet Production Measurement range 1-1000 ვ 1984 1984 Voltage measurement Scientific Operational/working condition
Voltmeter В3-38 / Soviet Production Voltage range 1-300ვ 1984 1984 For measuring the constant voltage source Scientific Operational/working condition
Voltmeter В3-38 / Soviet Production Measurement range 1, 10, 100, 1000 ვ 1985 1985 For measuring the constant voltage source Scientific Operational/working condition
Voltmeter Ф4214, Ф4310, Ф5033 / Soviet Production Voltage measurement range 100მვ-1000ვ 1983 1983 Intended for voltage measurement in a constant current network Scientific Operational/working condition
Dictograph ДХР-2 / Soviet Production Spectral range 185 - 1000 nm 1981 1981 Designed to measure the spectral dependence of circular dichroism Scientific Operational/working condition
Power measurement ИМО-2, ИМО-2Н / Soviet Production Power measurement range from 1 milliwatt to 100 watts 1978 1978 Designed to measure the average power of laser radiation Scientific Operational/working condition
Power measurement ИМО-2, ИМО-2Н / Soviet Production Power measurement range from 1 milliwatt to 100 watts 1978 1980 Designed to measure the average power of laser radiation Scientific Operational/working condition
Power measurement ИМО-2, ИМО-2Н / Soviet Production Power measurement range from 1 milliwatt to 100 watts 1978 1978 Designed to measure the average power of laser radiation Scientific Operational/working condition
Power measurement ИМО-2Н / Soviet Production Power measurement range from 1 milliwatt to 100 watts 1979 1979 Designed to measure the average power of constant and pulsed lasers Scientific Operational/working condition
Power measurement ИМО-2Н / Soviet Production Power measurement range from 1 milliwatt to 100 watts 1979 1979 Designed to measure the average power of constant and pulsed lasers Scientific Operational/working condition
Power measurement ИМО-2Н / Soviet Production Power measurement range from 1 milliwatt to 100 watts 1979 1979 Designed to measure the average power of constant and pulsed lasers Scientific Operational/working condition
Power measurement Е7-11 / Soviet Production Power measurement range 1-50 watts 1983 1983 Designed to measure the average power of constant and pulsed lasers Scientific Operational/working condition
Power measurement ИМ1-2 / Soviet Production Measurement of light pulse duration in the range 5-300 1983 1983 Designed to measure the positive and negative polarity of a generalized amplitude Scientific Operational/working condition
Laser ЛПМ-11 / Soviet Production Wavelength 441,6 nm, Power 40 milliwatts 1979 1979 Is intended for the use in laboratory studies Scientific Operational/working condition
Laser ЛГН-215 / Soviet Production Wavelength 632.8 nm, Power 50 milliwatts 1976 1976 Is intended to receive the coherent radiation in the red region of the spectrum Scientific Operational/working condition
Laser ЛГН-215 / Soviet Production Wavelength 632.8 nm, Power 50 milliwatts 1976 1976 Is intended to receive the coherent radiation in the red region of the spectrum Scientific Operational/working condition
Laser ЛГН-215 / Soviet Production Wavelength 632.8 nm, Power 50 milliwatts 1976 1976 Is intended to receive the coherent radiation in the red region of the spectrum Scientific Operational/working condition
Monochromator МДР-4-2 / Soviet Production Working range 190-4000 ნმ 1972 1972 Designed for monochromatic radiation in a wide spectrum range Scientific Operational/working condition
MillivoltmeterВ4-14 / Soviet Production Measurement range 10-1000 mW 1974 1974 Designed to measure voltage amplitude Scientific Operational/working condition
MillivoltmeterВ4-12 / Soviet Production Measurement range 10-1000 mW 1981 1981 Designed to measure voltage amplitude pulse Scientific Operational/working condition
Power supply Б5-50 / Soviet Production Output error Voltage +- 0,05%; Autput Current 0,1 % 1973 1973 Used for constant voltage and current of the radio equipment Scientific Operational/working condition
Nanovoltmeter Р-341 / Soviet Production Working range 10-1000 ნვ 1983 1983 Designed for small current and voltage measurements in a constant current network Scientific Operational/working condition
Oscillograph С8-12 / Soviet Production Maximum frequency 50 MHz 1983 1983 Designed for the study of the form of single and periodic electronic signals Scientific Operational/working condition
Biradiate oscilloscope С1-74 / Soviet Production The coefficient of expansion is 106 s; Error 4% 1982 1982 Designed for the study of electic signals by visual observation or photography Scientific Operational/working condition
Optical desk OCK-2 / Soviet Production Length 4 m 1979 1979 To assemble optical circuits Scientific Operational/working condition
Optical desk OCK-2 / Soviet Production Length 4 m 1979 1979 To assemble optical circuits Scientific Operational/working condition
Optical desk OCK-3 / Soviet Production Length 4 m 1980 1980 To assemble optical circuits Scientific Operational/working condition
Optical desk OCK-3 / Soviet Production Length 4 m 1980 1980 To assemble optical circuits Scientific Operational/working condition
Spectrophotometer SPECORD / გერმანია Spectral range 250-800 nm, ultraviolet and visible ranges 1976 1976 Designed to measure spectral relationships Scientific Operational/working condition
Spectrophotometer СФ-4А / Soviet Production Spectral range 220-1100 nm 1971 1972 Designed to measure the absorption and conductivity spectra of samples Scientific Operational/working condition
Spectrometer ДФС-452 / Soviet Production Spectral range 190-1100 nm 1979 1979 Designed to test samples over a wide range Scientific Operational/working condition
Spectrometer ИСП-51 / Soviet Production Measurement range 365-600 nm 1984 1984 Designed to measure the absorption and conductivity spectra of samples Scientific Operational/working condition
Machine tool drilling ВСУ-2 / Soviet Production Drilling frequency 330-2500 rpm Drill holder 1-16 mm 1961 1965 The machine is used for drilling, surface machining, screw cutting Scientific Operational/working condition
Machine tool drilling ЭСВ-3 / Soviet Production Swing/rotation speed 150-2800 rpm Maximum hole diameter 25 mm 1972 1972 The machine is used for drilling wood and metal details Scientific Operational/working condition
Machine tool drilling 2У106 / Soviet Production Swing/rotation speed 280-1600 rpm; Maximum hole diameter 3 mm; Maximum hole depth 40 mm (+C40) 1972 1972 The purpose is to obtain and process small diameter holes in the details Scientific Operational/working condition
Lathe (for schools) ТВ-4 / Soviet Production Surface working, screw cutting, drilling 1965 1965 The purpose is to lathe different details Scientific Operational/working condition
Desk lathe Д-60 / Soviet Production Maximum detail diameter 50 mm, lathe machine power 0.75 kW 1971 1971 To conduct different types of lathe works Scientific Operational/working condition
Lathe КУСОН-3 / Korea Maximum detail diameter 43 mm, lathe machine power 1m 1968 1968 To conduct different types of lathe works Scientific Operational/working condition
Milling machine. Balance NGF-110SH3 / Soviet Production The maximum diameter of the milling cutter is 110 mm 1977 1977 Suitable for milling works Scientific Operational/working condition
Machine milling КОМУНАРАС / Soviet Production Power 1.2 kW, speed 2800 rpm 1971 1971 The purpose is to process the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the details Scientific Operational/working condition
Table with low tempeature НС280/75 / Soviet Production Working surface of the table 20 mm 1979 1979 For coating and freezing surfaces Scientific Operational/working condition
Machine УИГ-2М / Soviet Production Dimensions 1 x 2.5 M; 1974 1974 For setting up holographic and optical circuits Scientific Operational/working condition
Machine УИГ-22 / Soviet Production Dimensions 1 x 2.5 M; 1986 1986 For setting up holographic and optical circuits Scientific Operational/working condition
Machine УИГ-22 / Soviet Production Dimensions 1 x 2.5 M; 1986 1986 For setting up holographic and optical circuits Scientific Operational/working condition
Machine УИГ-22/1 / Soviet Production Dimensions 1 x 2 M; 1977 1978 For setting up holographic and optical circuits Scientific Operational/working condition
Machine УИГ-1М / Soviet Production Dimensions 1 x 2 M; 1973 1973 For setting up holographic and optical circuits Scientific Operational/working condition
Machine УИГ-1М(И) / Soviet Production Dimensions 1 x 2 M; 1973 1973 For setting up holographic and optical circuits Scientific Operational/working condition
Machine for checking up/ for analyzing / Soviet Production Hights 8 M, Laser 1980 1982 Determination of subtle data from optical experiments Scientific Operational/working condition
Photometric desk ФСМ / Soviet Production Length 3 m 1981 1981 Designed to measure the power of light Scientific Operational/working condition
Frequency meter Ч3-33 / Soviet Production Frequency measurement range 20g - 60MHz 1978 1978 Designed for measuring frequency measuring apparatus and instruments Scientific Operational/working condition
Frequency meter Ч3-33 / Soviet Production Frequency measurement range 20g - 60MHz 1978 1978 Designed for measuring frequency measuring apparatus and instruments Scientific Operational/working condition
Frequency meter Ч3-34 / Soviet Production Frequency measurement range 20g - 60MHz 1986 1987 Designed for measuring frequency measuring apparatus and instruments Scientific Operational/working condition
Electrocardiograph УЗКАР-3 / Soviet Production Operating frequency 2.65 MHz 1987 1987 To receive ultrasound pulses Scientific Operational/working condition
Micro hardness measuement ПМТ-3 / Soviet Production Hardness measurement range 1 - 10 units of hardness 1974 1974 Designed to measure micro solidity in the laboratory Scientific Operational/working condition
Laser SDL-473-400T / China Wavelength 473 nm, power 400 mW 2009 2009 Designed for laboratory studies, used in optical circuits Scientific Operational/working condition
Laboratory Electronic Analytical Scale / Poland Measurement range 0.1 - 220 grams 2016 2016 Designed for laboratory measurements Scientific Operational/working condition
Optical device for processing glass lenses / China Processing diameter range 20 - 60 mm 2018 2018 Making optical details Scientific Operational/working condition
Magnetic weed with heater / China Mass of solution 1 l, maximum temperature 100 degrees 2018 2018 Preparation of various chemical solutions Scientific Operational/working condition
Laser device (Laser) / China Wavelength 473 nm, Power 1 watts 2018 2018 Coherent photoactinic light source Scientific Operational/working condition
Analitical scale / China Measurement range: 10mg g to 310 g with 0.1 mg readability, 2 – 3 s respond speed(stabilization Time). 2015 2015 Scales are used to weigh the reagents required for synthesis Scientific Operational/working condition
Laboratory centrifuge TDZ4A / China Max. Speed - 4000rpm; Max. RCF - 2580xg; Max. capacity 24x10ml; Speed accuracy - ±30rpm;; Time rang - 1min~99min; Noise - ≤62dB(A); Power supply - AC220±22V 50/60Hz 3A; Power consumption - 250W 2015 2015 The device is used to separate liquid samples into fractions under the influence of centrifugal–type force Scientific Operational/working condition
Vacuum pump (SHB III) ZHENGZHOU GREATWALL (HIDING) / China Largest vacuum: 0.098Mpa; Single-head exhaust volume: 10L/min; Exhaust the number of heads: 2; Tank capacity: 15L; Circulation flow rate: 80L/min; Pump head: 8m; Power: 180W; Body Material: Corrosion Engineering Plastics; Power Requirements: 200V/50Hz. 2016 2016 The vacuum pump is based on the principle of creating negative pressure using an ink flow and the use of recycled water in the form of a working fluid, which can provide vacuum conditions for chemical experiments Scientific Operational/working condition
Heater (TG-2005 RT-200C) / China Voltage: 220V; Working Temperature Range: 25 - 300 ℃; Digital resolution: ±0.1c; Temperature fluctuation: ±0.1c; Tank volume:10L; Heating power: 1.6kw 2016 2016 Heating / Cooling System - Thermo-circulator, in combination with a glass double-walled (jacketed) chemical reactor (after connection) to maintain the required temperature in the working temperature range in the reaction area Scientific Operational/working condition
Glass reactor (TORT-1 L) / China volume:1L; Reacting time:-80~300℃; Ac motor,brushless,no sparkle; Constant rotationg speed 0-1400 rpm; Reflow and distillation system; chemical laboratory use; with reaction mixing vessel 2016 2016 Glass double-walled (jacketed) reactor - used to carry out chemical reactions Scientific Operational/working condition
Rotary evaporator (RE-52AA) / China Glass Material - GG-17; Support Material - Antisepsis Plastic Spraying; Shell Material - Antisepsis Plastic Spraying 250*365*150mm; Inner Container Material - Stainless Steel  240*120mm; Volume of Rotary Bottle - 0.5L 24# Standard Aperture; Vacuum Degree - 0.098Mpa; Rotating Power - 30W Brushless Electric Machine; Rotating Speed - 0-120rpm; Heating Power - 1KW; Temperature Control Range of Bath Kettle - 0-99℃; Temperature Accuracy - ±1℃; Voltage/Frequency (V/Hz) - 220V/50Hz; Up and Down Distance - 120mm; Temperature Control Mode - Smart Temperature Control; Temperature Control Range of Bath Kettle - 0-400℃. 2016 2016 A rotary evaporator is a commonly used laboratory instrument in a chemical laboratory, mainly used for continuous distillation of large quantities of volatile solvents under the negative pressure Scientific Operational/working condition
Magnetic rotary with heater (Heater With) / China Operating speed range - 100-1000 rpm; Number of places for heating – 4; The maximum volume of the heated liquid - 3 l; The working surface of the plate – Refractory; Maximum plate heating temperature - 100°C; Heating element power - 300 W; The accuracy of maintaining the temperature of the plate - 1%; Power consumption - 1020 W. 2016 2016 Laboratory device EMS-18C magnetic stirring with heater is widely used in analytical colloidal chemistry; As well as in biochemistry, pharmaceuticals, medicine, during chemical reactions in various fields. Scientific Operational/working condition
PH metre Hanna Instruments GroChek PH / USA pH range 0-12; Temperature range 0-1300С; Operating pressure: up to 2.5 bar; Ceramic type diaphragm; Diaphragm quantity: 1. 2018 2018 pH meter is a device for measuring the hydrogen content, which characterizes the activity of hydrogen ions in solutions, water, food and raw materials, environmental facilities and production systems for continuous monitoring of technological processes, including in aggressive environments as well Scientific Operational/working condition
Thermostatic and closed ultrasonic reactor TOPTION Model Number: TOPT-6000 / China Glass two-wall reactor with a capacity of 1 liter, has a platform for connecting the head of the ultrasonic homogenizer, also provides the possibility of creating a vacuum 2018 2018 Thermostatic and closed ultrasonic reactor is used for sonochemical synthesis Scientific Operational/working condition
Vacuum pump / FX MODEL Number FX60 / China Rotating speed 1420 r/min; Horsepower: 2.2Kw, Pressure:high vacuum 0.0004mbar; S pump speed: 37cfm in 50Hz; VOLTAGE:220V----460V 2018 2018 The pump is used in an automated chemical reactor system to create an inert gas environment (or vacuum) Scientific Operational/working condition
Desk, Laboratory pH Multimeter / Hanna Instruments, device model: edge @ Multiparameter pH Meter HI2020-01 / China pH range 0-16 (resolution 0.001); Dissolved oxygen - 0.00 - 45.00 mg/l; The electrical conductivity of the solution is from 0.00 to 29.99 µS/cm; Resolution 0.01 µS/cm; Accuracy: ± 1% of reading; Mini USB port for connecting to a computer. 2018 2018 The device measures both the acid-base balance (pH) of the liquid and thanks to the additional sensors edge HI2020, can measure dissolved oxygen (DO) and solution conductivity (ED) Scientific Operational/working condition
Schlenk line /Precision Labware. LLC / USA Four-port double borosilicate glass manifold (seat size 15 O-Ring), cold accumulator with clamp, bubbler and accessories. The ports are made from 4mm double depth vacuum glass stopcock. The ports are equipped with two 14/20 and two 24/40 with internal hinges. The distance between two adjacent ports is 127 mm, the total length of the collector is 635 mm. 2018 2018 The Schlenk line is a tubular glass apparatus used to perform chemical manipulations without air Scientific Operational/working condition
Laboratory reactor pH sensor /Mettler TOLEDO Ph Electrode 405-dpas-sc-k8/120 / USA Laboratory reactor pH sensor is designed to determine the acid-base balance during the reaction 2018 2018 A pH sensor is required to connect to a pH meter Scientific Operational/working condition
Magnetometer / Dering (Dering Magner Tech Co, LTD) Model: VSM 550 100 (Vibrating Magnetometer Lake Shore 7300) / USA Measure the scope of the magnetic moment: 10-2 emu—300emu(Sensitivity: 5×10-5 emu); Relative accuracy (30 emu ): better than  ±1%; Repeatability (30 emu): better than  ±1%.; Stability (30 emu) : Preheating 24 hours , 24 hours of continuous work superior ±1%. ;Temperature range : from -196℃ to 900℃; The magnetic Pole pitch for a fixed spacing is 40 mm , the pole face diameter is 60 mm. Magnetic field: supplied by the electromagnet, from 0 to 2.0 T. 2018 2018 The magnetometer provides information on the magnetic properties of soft and solid ferromagnetic-ferrimagnetic materials such as saturated (MS) and residual (MR) magnetization, coercive fields (HC), and curve temperature (TC) Scientific Operational/working condition
Nano and micro particle analyzer - Litesizer 500 / Austria Dimensions - (WxDxH) 460 x 485 x 135 mm; Light Source - 40 mW 658 nm Laser; Measurement Mode - Particle size, Zeta potential, Molecular mass, Transmittance; Measuring Range - 0.3 nm to 10 µm, -600 to +600 mV, 980 Da to 20 Mda; Sample Volume - Minimum 20 µL. 2012 2021 The analyzer is designed to study the characteristics of nano and microsome particles in dispersions and solutions. Determines particle size, zeta potential and molecular weight Scientific Operational/working condition
Counterweight cup for micromill (planet) / Fritsch / China (Germany) Counterweight cup,1200 grams, tempered steel 2011 2016 Counterweight of the re-grinding cup of the reactions' mixture ScientificScientific/Educational, Industrial (small scale) Operational/working condition
20 ml grinding cup for micromill (planet)/ Fritsch / China (Germany) Grinding cup for planetary mill for increased hardness of substance, with inner surface of zirconium, tempered steel 2011 2016 Places the reactionary mixture to grind Scientific/Educational, Industrial (small scale) Operational/working condition
Rolling machine for wire / Durston / China (UK) DRM C 100, 30.3 kg, 360 mm, 200 mm, 320 mm, 9 marks, maximum 5.5 mm rolling thickness, 4, 3, 2, 1.5 mm lateral extension, wire max. Length 7 mm 2015 2016 Milling the rectangular cross-section wiring (for example, superconducting wires made with PIT (Powder in Tube) technology) Scientific/Educational, Industrial (small scale) Working condition
Analytical scale HANYU HY JF CN / HANYU / China FA 1204N, 120 gr., Accuracy 0.1mg., Adapter AC110-240V, dimensions 340mm (L) * 215mm (W) * 350mm (H), plate 80mm 2015 2017 To weigh the reaction barrel Scientific/Educational Working condition
Annular die made out of steel / Labtools / China (Russia) Ring-shaped, ring-pressed, pressed steel 2018 2018 Pressing ring-shaped patterns from powder Scientific/Educational, Industrial (small scale) Working condition
Rolling machine for wire / Durston / China (UK) DRM C 150, 49 kg, 430 mm, 220 mm, 365 mm, 11 footprints, 6 mm thickness maximum, cylinder diameter 60 mm, lateral expansion 4, 3, 2, 1.5 mm 2015 2018 Milling the circular cross-section wiring (for example, superconducting wires made with PIT (Powder in Tube) technology) Scientific/Educational, Industrial (small scale) Working condition
Oscillograph 7401 X2 SDS7102 100 MHZ / Owon / China 100 MHz, 1 GSa / s, 10 Mpts, VGA, usb, 8 TFT LCD, 65535 colors, 2 channels 2016 2018 For visualization of the signal entering the input port of the device , for frequency, temporal and logical analysis of the signal Scientific/Educational Working condition
Lamp of microscope OSRAMHBO100W2 / OSRAM / China 100w DC, 2200 lm, 10.0 mm D, 200 h 2013 2015 Mercury-vapour lamp to obtain ultraviolet spectrum Scientific Operational/working condition
Microscope ocular camera CCD kamera / OMAX / China 3.1MP, Sony 1/1.8 color CCD, 3.45 um x 3.45 um, 62dB, USB 2.0, 0.80 kg 2013 2016 Move the image of the sample placed on the microscope subject table to the monitor screen Scientific Operational/working condition
Fiber-optic CCD D otonics Qwave VIS NIR/RGB Photonics (Germany) Qwave Spectrometer (VIS, NIR) Focal length: 75 mm; Numerical aperture: 0.1; Messer: 600 str. / Mm; Input gap: 20 μm; Spectral resolution in the visible (VIS) range: 0.5 nm; Spectral resolution in the near-infrared (NIR) range: 0.3 nm; Idle light <0.05% 2016 2016 Spectroscopic works in visible and near infrared spectral areas (400 - 1000 nm). Absorption, reflection and Raman-spectroscopy in the field of biomedical optics are possible. For example, determination of ferritin concentration in the case of covid-19 Scientific Operational/working condition
A set of spectrometers OceanOptics OCEAN NIR ES BUNDLE REFLECTA NCE/Ocean Optics (USA)/Ocean FX VIS-NIR Spectrometer Messer: 600 str. / Mm; Spectral range: 350-1000 nm; Speed: 4500 scans per second; Variable input gap 10 - 200 μm; The resolution depends on the size of the gap 2019 2019 Periodic and stationary spectroscopy; Biomedical optics applications: oximetry, photoplethysmography Scientific Operational/working condition
Machine flat grinding (model 3Д70В) / Orsha, ,,красный борец" Dimensions of the table are 400 mm / 160 mm, dimensions of the work surface are 400 mm / 160 mm, height of the workpiece is 320 mm, maximum weight of the workpiece is 50 kg. Grinding circle dimensions 250 mm, 25 mm, 32 mm, end of grinding spandel diameter 25 mm, e. Engine power 1 kW. The total weight of the machine is 1500 kg. 1975 1975 Grinding works on a large scale on small and medium dimensions Scientific Requires repairment
Universal lathe machine tool 1 И 611 П /Izhevsk, Factory ИЖ The diameter of the workpiece is 250 mm and 125 mm; Length of workpiece 500 m, number of electric motors 3 pieces; Main engine power 3 kW; Dimensions 1770 mm / 970 mm / 1300 mm; Weight 1120 kg 1967 1968 Grinding works in a large scale on small and medium dimensions Scientific Working condition
Electronic generator (Honda/Japan) Voltage 220 V, constant voltage 12 V, frequency 50 Hz, output speed 1 Ø, current 8.3 A 1997 1997 Power source Scientific Working condition
Electronic generator (Honda/Japan) Voltage 220 V, constant voltage 12 V, frequency 50 Hz, output speed 1 Ø, current 8.3 A 1997 1997 Power source Scientific Working condition
Electronic generator (Honda/Japan) Voltage 220 V, constant voltage 12 V, frequency 50 Hz, output speed 1 Ø, current 8.3 A 1997 1997 Power source Scientific Working condition
Electronic generator (Honda/Japan) Voltage 220 V, constant voltage 12 V, frequency 50 Hz, output speed 1 Ø, current 8.3 A 1997 1997 Power source Scientific Working condition
Two-storied vent cupboard (width 180 cm, height 200 cm) / Georgia, Analysis tool Width 180 cm, height 200 cm 2019 2019 To absorb harmful gases Scientific Operational/working condition
Two-storied vent cupboard (width 180 cm, height 200 cm) / Georgia, Analysis tool Width 180 cm, height 200 cm 2019 2019 To absorb harmful gases Scientific Operational/working condition
Two-storied vent cupboard (width 180 cm, height 200 cm) / Georgia, Analysis tool Width 180 cm, height 200 cm 2019 2019 To absorb harmful gases Scientific Operational/working condition
Two-storied vent cupboard (width 180 cm, height 200 cm) / Georgia, Analysis tool Width 180 cm, height 200 cm 2019 2019 To absorb harmful gases Scientific Operational/working condition
Two-storied vent cupboard (width 180 cm, height 200 cm) / Georgia, Analysis tool Width 180 cm, height 200 cm 2019 2019 To absorb harmful gases Scientific Operational/working condition
Two-storied vent cupboard (width 180 cm, height 200 cm) / Georgia, Analysis tool Width 180 cm, height 200 cm 2019 2019 To absorb harmful gases Scientific Operational/working condition
Two-storied vent cupboard (width 180 cm, height 200 cm) / Georgia, Analysis tool Width 180 cm, height 200 cm 2019 2019 To absorb harmful gases Scientific Operational/working condition
Two-storied vent cupboard (width 180 cm, height 200 cm) / Georgia, Analysis tool Width 180 cm, height 200 cm 2019 2019 To absorb harmful gases Scientific Operational/working condition
Two-storied vent cupboard (width 180 cm, height 200 cm) / Georgia, Analysis tool Width 180 cm, height 200 cm 2019 2019 To absorb harmful gases Scientific Operational/working condition
Two-storied vent cupboard (width 180 cm, height 200 cm) / Georgia, Analysis tool Width 180 cm, height 200 cm 2019 2019 To absorb harmful gases Scientific Operational/working condition
Two-storied vent cupboard (width 100 cm, height 200 cm) / Georgia, Analysis tool Width 100 cm, height 200 cm 2019 2019 To absorb harmful gases Scientific Operational/working condition
Two-storied vent cupboard (width 100 cm, height 200 cm) / Georgia, Analysis tool Width 100 cm, height 200 cm 2019 2019 To absorb harmful gases Scientific Operational/working condition
Two-storied vent cupboard (width 100 cm, height 200 cm) / Georgia, Analysis tool Width 100 cm, height 200 cm 2019 2019 To absorb harmful gases Scientific Operational/working condition
Two-storied vent cupboard (width 100 cm, height 200 cm) / Georgia, Analysis tool Width 100 cm, height 200 cm 2019 2019 To absorb harmful gases Scientific Operational/working condition
Two-storied vent cupboard (width 100 cm, height 200 cm) / Georgia, Analysis tool Width 100 cm, height 200 cm 2019 2019 To absorb harmful gases Scientific Operational/working condition
Two-storied vent cupboard (width 100 cm, height 200 cm) / Georgia, Analysis tool Width 100 cm, height 200 cm 2019 2019 To absorb harmful gases Scientific Operational/working condition
Two-storied vent cupboard (width 100 cm, height 200 cm) / Georgia, Analysis tool Width 100 cm, height 200 cm 2019 2019 To absorb harmful gases Scientific Operational/working condition
Two-section chemical table (width 160 cm, height 160 cm) / Georgia, Analysis tool Width 160 cm, height 160 cm 2019 2019 For reaction manipulations Scientific Operational/working condition
Two-section chemical table (width 160 cm, height 160 cm) / Georgia, Analysis tool Width 160 cm, height 160 cm 2019 2019 For reaction manipulations Scientific Operational/working condition
Two-section chemical table (width 160 cm, height 160 cm) / Georgia, Analysis tool Width 160 cm, height 160 cm 2019 2019 For reaction manipulations Scientific Operational/working condition
Two-section chemical table (width 160 cm, height 160 cm) / Georgia, Analysis tool Width 160 cm, height 160 cm 2019 2019 For reaction manipulations Scientific Operational/working condition
Two-section chemical table (width 160 cm, height 160 cm) / Georgia, Analysis tool Width 160 cm, height 160 cm 2019 2019 For reaction manipulations Scientific Operational/working condition
Two-section chemical table (width 160 cm, height 160 cm) / Georgia, Analysis tool Width 160 cm, height 160 cm 2019 2019 For reaction manipulations Scientific Operational/working condition
Two-section chemical table (width 60 cm, height 150 cm) / Georgia, Analysis tool Width 60 cm, height 150 cm 2019 2019 For reaction manipulations Scientific Operational/working condition
Two-section chemical table (width 60 cm, height 150 cm) / Georgia, Analysis tool Width 60 cm, height 150 cm 2019 2019 For reaction manipulations Scientific Operational/working condition
Two-section chemical table (width 60 cm, height 150 cm) / Georgia, Analysis tool Width 60 cm, height 150 cm 2019 2019 For reaction manipulations Scientific Operational/working condition
Two-section chemical table (width 60 cm, height 150 cm) / Georgia, Analysis tool Width 60 cm, height 150 cm 2019 2019 For reaction manipulations Scientific Operational/working condition
Two-section chemical table (width 60 cm, height 150 cm) / Georgia, Two-section chemical table (width 60 cm, height 150 cm) / Georgia, Analysis tool Width 60 cm, height 150 cm 2019 2019 For reaction manipulations Scientific Operational/working condition
Two-section chemical table (width 60 cm, height 150 cm) / Georgia, Analysis tool Width 60 cm, height 150 cm 2019 2019 For reaction manipulations Scientific Operational/working condition
CCD LINEPEC SPEQTROMETER/Specra Physics (USA)/ Oriel LineSpec\TM CCD Spectrometer Messer: 400 and 1200 str. / Mm; Spectral range: 200-1000 nm; Gap 10 - 200 μm; The resolution depends on the size of the gap. 2007 2007 Stationary spectroscopy in ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared spectral areas (200-1000 nm). Absorption spectroscopy of macromolecules (DNA, proteins) is possible, as well as reflection and raman-spectroscopy Scientific Working condition
GRAT 1200 L/MM 350 RBLZ M 125/Specra Physics (USA)/ Spectrometer railing 1200 s/mm 2007 2007 The railing is used to study the ultraviolet (UV) area Scientific Working condition
10 MICRON FIXED SLTL/Specra Physics (USA)/ Spectrometer clearance 10 μM 2007 2007 Input hole when resolution is significant. Scientific Working condition
FIXED SLIT (100 UM)/Specra Physics (USA)/ Spectrometer clearance 100 μM 2007 2007 Input hole when sensitivity is important, while resolution is not that important Scientific Working condition
Hg Ar CALIBRAITION SET/Specra Physics (USA)/ Hg-Ar Calibrated spectral lamp 110 VAC, 60 Hz 2007 2007 Calibration of spectrometers Scientific Working condition
Laser MBL-473 nm-50m W10% Stability / China Wavelength 473 nm, power 50 MW. 2008 2008 Optical excitation of luminescent substances Scientific Operational/working condition
Analytical scale / Poland Maximum weighing 200 g, weighing accuracy 0.1 mg, working temperature 17-35 degrees. 2012 2012 High precision preparation of various substances, mixtures, & etc. Scientific Operational/working condition
Laboratry mixer FAITHFULL / China 100-2500 rpm 2018 2018 Preparation of mixtures Scientific Operational/working condition
Laboratry mixer Caframa/ Canada 40-2000 rpm 2018 2018 Preparation of mixtures Scientific Operational/working condition
Power meter Solar lightuv minder model 3d erythema dsul+uva intesitv meter 3.751 / England UVA and SUV MED/h, mW/cm2 2018 2018 Measurement of UVA and human erythematous dose Scientific Operational/working condition
Spectrophotometer Avaspec-ULS2048CL-EVO-RS-UA / USA Working interval 200-1100 nm, resolution 1 nm 2018 2018 Spectral analysis, visualization-processing of optical data Scientific Operational/working condition
Spectrophotometer AvaSpec-2048USB2-VA / Avantes, Netherlands VIS/NIR, 360-1100 nm, 200 μm SMA 905, USB 2.0, 16 bit, 175 x 110 x 44 mm (1 channel), 716 gr. 2007 2009 Decrypt spectrum from near infrared to ultraviolet and display, process Scientific Operational/working condition
Microscope ocular camera DCM510 / Scopetek / China CMOS, 1/2.5 inch, 3.1 Mpx, 7 frames/sec, 67.4 dB, 400nm~1000nm, 0.5V / lux-sec@550nm, USB 2.0, D 23.2mm, CS mount lens 2007 2009 Move the image of the sample placed on the microscope subject table to the monitor screen Scientific Operational/working condition
Illumination light FiberLight 2TM 6/10 / FiberLight / China Deut. 200-1100 nm, 6 W, 157 x 55 x 37 mm, ≥5x10-8 W/Sr @ 240 nm, Tungsten: 400-1100 nm, 5 Vdc, 45 mAdc, ≥2000 h 2009 2010 Spectrum light emission from near infrared to ultraviolet Scientific Operational/working condition
Spectrometer Ava Spec-2048-USB2-VA / Netherlands Cymmetrical Czerny -Turnen, 75 mm focal length; 200-1000 nm; 0.04-2. nm, depemding on configuration; CCD linear array, 2048 pixels 2009 2009 To separate ionized particles of a substance according to their mass Scientific Operational/working condition
Multimeter / Aligent 344 10A / China Digital multimeter 6.5 digit Measurement range 100000 MV-1000000 V, error ± 0.0050x10-0.0006x10` margin 2011 2011 Study of electrical characteristics of semiconductor devices (volt-ampere, volt-capacitive) and measurement of parameters (open circuit voltage, short-circuit current) in laboratory conditions. Scientific Operational/working condition
Laser SDL-457-200T / China Wavelength 457 nm, Power 200 milliwatts 2009 2009 A laser is intended for the use in laboratory studies, for irradiation of samples Scientific Depriciated
Interface board ACP / CAP / Ukraine Signal level from 100 Millivolts to 2.5 volts 2009 2009 Analog-to-digital / digital-to-analog converter used in laboratory photometric scheme Scientific Operational/working condition
Laser SDL-473-200T / China Wavelength 473 nm, Power 200 milliwatts 2010 2010 A laser is intended for the use in laboratory studies, for irradiation of samples Scientific Operational/working condition
Laser SDL-532-300T / China Wavelength 532 nm, Power 300 milliwatts 2010 2010 A laser is intended for the use in laboratory studie, in optical circuits Scientific Operational/working condition
Laser CNI 473nm - 1200 / China Wavelength 473 nm, Power 1.2 watts 2020 2020 Used to record polarizing-holographic elements in the optical circuits Scientific Operational/working condition
Drying cabin / Poland Temperature range 30-300 degrees. C 2021 2021 To dry samples of polarized sensitive materials obtained in the laboratory Scientific Operational/working condition
Digital Analog Converter / Ukraine 16 bit converter 2021 2021 Used in laboratory photometric scheme Scientific Operational/working condition
Laser blu lazer 488nm 100 mW BLM488T3 / China Wavelength 488 nm, Power100 milliwatts 2021 2021 Used in the optical circuits Scientific Operational/working condition
Laser infra-red 1064 nm 150 mW / China Wavelength 1064 nm, Power150 milliwatts 2021 2021 Used in the optical circuits Scientific Operational/working condition
Camera CCD / Canada The size of the matrix is 24 x 36 mm 2022 2022 Designed to convert an optical image into an analog electrical signal or digital data stream Scientific Operational/working condition
Laser Givit Lazer LSR - 445 nm 6W / China Wavelength 445 nm, Power 6 watts 2016 2016 A laser is intended for the use in laboratory studies Scientific Operational/working condition
Laser Givit Lazer LSR - 405 nm - 500 / China Wavelength 405 nm, Power 500 milliwatts 2016 2016 A laser is intended for the use in laboratory studies Scientific Operational/working condition
Laser Civit Lazer LSR - 635nm 300MW / China Wavelength 635 nm, Power 300 milliwatts 2016 2016 A laser is intended for the use in laboratory studies Scientific Operational/working condition
Intensity measuring photometer CCD camera / USA Matrix size 20 x 25 mm 2016 2016 Designed to convert an optical image into an analog electrical signal or digital data stream Scientific Operational/working condition
Equatorial Guided telescopic GPS receiver / USA Computerized, engine type - Low cog DC servo motors, rotation range - from 7 to 77 degrees, leg length - 44 to 64, ports - Autoguider 2016 2016 For the study of astronomical objects Scientific Operational/working condition
Automatic tracking device for the astronomical telescope / USA Finder aperture: 50 mm; Resolution: 1280 x 960 (1,228,800 total); Resolution: 1280 x 960 (1,228,800 total); Pixel size: 3.75 x 3.75 μm; -Sensor: 0.3MP Color CMOS sensor; - Sensor size: 1/3; Video frame rate: Up to 200 fps; Exposure range: 0.00002s to 600s 2016 2016 Studies astronomical objects Scientific Operational/working condition
Lazeri Givin Lazer ISR - 473nm - 300 / China Wavelength 473 nm, power 300 mW 2016 2016 The laser is designed for laboratory studies Scientific Operational/working condition
Infrared laser module / China Wavelength 808 nm 2010 2010 Designed for laboratory research Scientific Operational/working condition
Laser SDL-473-500T / China Wavelength 473 nm, Power 500 milliwatts 2010 2010 A laser is intended for the use in laboratory studies Scientific Operational/working condition
Oscillograph (with 4 channels) Number of channels 4, conductivity of power transmission lines 100 MHz 2013 2013 To record information during the experiment Scientific Operational/working condition
Oscillograph (with 2 channels) Number of channels 2, conductivity of power transmission lines 100 MHz 2013 2013 To record information during the experiment Scientific Operational/working condition
Oscillograph (with 2 channels) Number of channels 2, conductivity of power transmission lines 100 MHz 2013 2013 To record information during the experiment Scientific Operational/working condition
Mixing tool PLANETARY MICRO / Fritsch / China (Germany) fritsch pulverisette 7, up to 1100 rpm; Useful space 2x30 ml; 2 cups agate or zirconium balls; Reverse; Grinding process - dry, wet, 44 kg, 40 x 58 x 36 cm 2010 2010 To transform reaction quenches into micro, submicro, and nanoscale Scientific/Educational, Industrial (small scale) Working condition
Grinder cups / Fritsch / China Grinding cup for planetary mill with inner surface of agate, tempered steel, 20 ml 2009 2010 Place the reaction mixture to grind Scientific/Educational, Industrial (small scale) Working condition
TektroniX DMM 6500 Digital scanning multimeter/ Keythley / China 15 functions, sensitivity 100 Nv, 10 amperes, 1 µOhm, 5-inch display, 7 million record storage, usb, LAN, usb-TMC, accessory card slot 2018 2019 Multi-channel digital multimeter for dynamic performance of complex measurements Scientific/Educational Working condition
TektroniX 2000 SCAN bourd plate / Keythley / China 10 channels, 2 poles, configured on 4 poles, DC signals: 110 VDC, 1 A switched, 30 VA (resistive load) AC signals: 125 VRMS or 175 VACPEAK, 1 A switched, 62.5 VA (resistive load) 2018 2019 Digital Multimeter Signal Dynamic Scan Board, Built-in Multimeter Scientific/Educational Working condition
TektroniX 2001 TCSCAN Thermocouple board / Keythley / China 10 channels, DC Signal: 110 V DC, 1 A switched 30 VA (resistive load) AC signal: 125 VRMS or 175 V AC peak 1 A switched 62.5 VA (resistive load) 2018 2019 A built-in digital multimeter board for multi-channel thermocouple measurements Scientific/Educational Working condition
Intracellular electrometer IE251A / Warner Instruments, USA 220-260 volts; 60-50 Hz, 0.017 amps 2010 2010 Used to enhance the biopotentials of neurons for their further observation Scientific Operational/working condition
Portable spectrum analyzer device Spectan NF-5035/Aaronia AG. Germany Frequency Range: 1 Hz to 1 MHz Level Range: 1nT to 2mT Filter Bandwidth (min/max): 0.3Hz (min)/10MHz(max) Precision Base Unit: 3% Range Analog Input (typical): 200nV (min) - 200mV (max) FFT (Resolution in Points): 1024 Vector Power Measurement (I/Q) eight: 430 gr 2010 2010 Used to detect low frequency electromagnetic fields. The biological effects of these fields are studied Scientific Operational/working condition
Piezo micromanipulator PM 20 / Marzhauserm Germany 230/115 volts; 750/1100 mAh, 8 volts 2011 2011 Used for microscopic movement of microelectrodes to avoid damaging biological cells by placing microelectrodes in them Scientific Operational/working condition
Mechanical Manipulator MD4 / Marshauser Wetzlar, Germany Travel range X-axis: 37 mm Y- axis: 20 mm Z-axis: 25 mm Fine adjustment 10 mm Weight 700 g 2011 2011 Used for microscopic movement of various biological instruments to manipulate biological cells. Scientific Operational/working condition
Glass Microelectrodes stretcher (Puller) P-30 / Sutter Instrument Company, USA 220-240 volts, 50-60 Hz, 25 amps 2011 2011 Used to stretch borosilicate capillaries to make microelectrodes. Scientific Operational/working condition
CCD Camera H6741CE / Tucsen, China Saturation: 59%, Lightness: 53.1%,The values in the RGB color space are: Red: 103 (40.39%), Green: 65 25.49%).Blue: 206 (80.78%) 2015 2015 Used for the scientific study of cancerous tissues of the prostate and other organs Scientific Operational/working condition
Nanovoltmeter with the accessories / Keythley 2182 A / China 2 channels, 10mV-100 V, resolution 1 nanovolt-10 microvolts, 100V / 120V / 220V / 240V 2019 2019 Voltage measurement in dynamic mode with great range and accuracy Scientific/Educational Working condition
Power supply lonphysics CM-01-L for pulse application, sensitivity 1 mv / a, maximum peak current 500 ka, effective 600 a. / lonphysics CM-01-L for pulse application / ION PHYSICS CORPORATION/USA Sensitivity 1 mV / a, maximum peak current 500 kA, effective 600 a 2018 2018 The device is used in pulsed technologies to measure the dependence of peak current time on an oscilloscope. Scientific Operational/working condition
Voltage transmitter / separator, 1000: 1, maximum peak voltage 18 kV, effective 12 kV; Introduction Impedance 200 mohm 1.5 pf, frequency 0..150 MHz / Caltest CT4026 / Cal Test Electronics/China Measurable and output voltage ratio. coefficient 1000: 1, Maximum peak voltage 18 kV, effective 12 kV, input impedance 200 mM | 1.5 pcf, frequency 0..150 MHz 2018 2018 The device is used to measure changes in effective voltage up to 12 kV and peak voltage up to 18 kV with the help of an oscilloscope over time. Scientific Operational/working condition
Pressure sensor DMP320 0.5 mwm, 40-60 Bar / DMP320 / BD-Sensors/China Response time 0.5 ms, pressure range: 0-400 bar absolute, output signal: 0.1 -10 V 2018 2018 To measure absolute and peak pressure in a fluid with the help of an oscilloscope Scientific Operational/working condition
Infrared temperature sensor, with USB interface / Omega OS-MiniUSBSN21 / Omega Engineering Inc/China Measurement range from non-metallic surfaces 20-1000 ° C, reaction time 125 ms 2018 2018 An infrared temperature sensor measures the temperature of a solid or liquid surface without contact. With the help of usb-interface it is possible to connect it to a computer and monitor temperature changes with the help of a computer program. Scientific Operational/working condition
Oscillograph Rigol DS1204B / Rigol DS1204B / RIGOL USA Four-Channel Digital Oscillograph DS1204B; 4 analog channels, pass-band 200 m Hz; Opening resistance of analog Channels and its capacity 1 MOm | 18 pp; Analog signal discretization frequency in real time - 1 (2) GHz (on half channels) Equivalent - 25 (50) gigabytes / sec; Front 1.75 sec; Maximum memory of the analog channel: 8000/16000 k point per half channel; Vertical range 2m..10v / partition, 8 bits; Horizontal range 1 sec -50 sec / partition; Maximum delay between channels - 500 ppm, maximum input voltage - 300 V; 2018 2018 Digital Oscillograph is used to test voltage wave signals and to visualize variations in voltage according to time Scientific Operational/working condition
Oscillograph 1GS/S (owon) / China conductivity of power transmission lines 100 Mgg, Number of channels -2 2014 2014 Oscillograph has large memory, wide dynamic range and various recording capabilities Scientific Operational/working condition
Laser MDL-III 405 50mW / China Wavelength 405 nm, Power 50 milliwatts 2014 2014 For irradiation of samples/for laboratory research Scientific Operational/working condition
Laser MDL-III 532 50mW / China Wavelength 532 nm, Power 50 milliwatts 2014 2014 For irradiation of samples/for laboratory research/for measuring radiation Scientific Operational/working condition
Portable laser PGL III 808 50mW / China Wavelength 808 nm, power 50 milliwatts 2014 2014 Infrared portable laser is intended for laboratory studies, for irradiation of samples in the infrared area Scientific Operational/working condition
Multimeter - UNIT UT804 / China Constant voltage measurement area - 600mv / 6V / 60V / 600V / 1000V 400mv / 4V / 40V / 400V / 1000V Accuracy ± (0.025% + 5) Variable voltage measurement area - 600mv / 6V / 60V / 600V / 1000V 4V / 40V / 400V / 1000V Accuracy ± (0.4% + 30) Variable voltage measurement frequency. Band - 100 KHz DC current measurement area .600 μA / 6000μA / 60mA / 600mA / 10A 400μA / 4000μA / 40mA / 400mA / 10A Accuracy ± (0.7% + 15) AC Measurement Area 600μA / 6000μA / 60mA / 600mA / 10A 400μA / 4000μA / 40mA / 400mA / 10A Accuracy ± (0.7% + 15) Impedance measurement area 600Ω / 6k / 60k / 600k / 6M / 60MΩ 400Ω / 4k / 40k / 400k / 4M / 40MΩ Accuracy ± (0.3% + 40) Capacity measurement area 6 nF / 60nF / 600nF / 6μF / 60μF / 600μF / 6mF 40nF / 400nF / 4μF / 40μF / 400μF / 4mF / 40mF Accuracy ± (1% +20 digits) Temperature measurement area - -40 ... 1000 ° C Accuracy ± (1% + 30 ° C) Frequency measurement range –6kHz / 60kHz / 600kHz / 6mHz / 60mHz 40Hz / 400Hz / 4kHz / 40kHz / 4mHz / 40mHz / 400mHz Accuracy ± (0.01% +8) RS 232C with USB 2017 2017 To measure the parameters of an electrical signal Scientific Operational/working condition
Programmable DC PS 2260B-30-108 USB/LAN ports / China OUTPUT RATINGS: 0-30 V, 0–108 A; 0–1080 W; PROGRAMMING ACCURACY: Voltage 10 mV, Current 100 mA. 2018 2020 Application: for DC voltage generating Scientific Operational/working condition

Scientific buildings

International Scientific Works

Project number/ID Project title Name of the grant call Funding organization Grant budget (total) Start/end dates Principal investigator Key personnel Project Summary Detailed description Achieved results
NIKOP Project N07-09 (აშშ) GRANT NO:000140710857 Biosonar Imaging For Multiple-Target ClassificationClearance memorandum grants with educational and nonprofit institutionsსპონსორი: Mr. Michael Vaccaro Office of Naval Research,875 North Randolph Street, Suite 1425, Code 321US94000 დოლარი2007 - 2009T. Zorikov T. Zorikov, J. A. Simons "The overall goal of this project was to understand how echolocating bats can orient by sonar, find targets while avoiding obstacles in cluttered surroundings, develop a remembered sense of surrounding space, and identify their momentary location in that space by accessing the remembered scene to control flight. The rationale is that, among mammals, this is a unique system because neurons in the bat’s auditory system respond to each bisonar broadcast and each echo with an average of just on spike per sound, not with a burst of numerous spikes-per-unit time. Spike-rate coding is the empirical basis for most theorizing about the neural mechanisms of perception and spatial memory. The types of animals used to study sensory mechanisms and spatial maps in the brain mainly use vision for distance sensing. Consequently, most work has relied upon visual orientation as the behavior to study. Neurons in the mammalian visual system typically respond with trains of spikes that are modulated in rate according to changes in stimuli. The most salient features of stimuli evoke higher response-rates in neurons selective for those features, which leads to the prevailing understanding that perceptions are built up by inventorying the different subpopulations of cells that respond most strongly. Spike-time coding is invoked to account for the grouping of different stimulus features into cohesive perceived ―objects as a solution to the binding problem. Because cells in the visual system produce multiple spikes in bursts, the attention has been focused on mechanisms that can synchronize the individual spikes across cells—a kind of phase-locking between spike-trains in different neurons. In effect, neurons that produce their spikes in phase with each other must belong to the same feature inventory—that is, to the same object. Carrying this principle further, responses of neurons that encode an animal’s position in a familiar space also respond with a train of spikes when the animal is in a specific region, so that the occurrence of a higher spike rate in some cells but not others registers the animal’s place in that space. Here, too, recent research has focused on the role of the phase of spikes in bursts produced by place-selective neurons as the animal moves through a familiar space. Cells that produce their spike bursts in sequence when the animal moves through adjacent locations provide a coarse representation of place, while a finer scale of location appears to be represented by the relative phase of the spikes in the trains, which shifts progressively as the animal moves through each cell’s place field. In both visual coding and place coding, the origin of the synchronization—that is, the phase relation of spikes in trains produced by different neurons—is thought to be low-frequency oscillations in field potentials that affect large groups of cells simultaneously. However, concern about the possible role of spike-train phase as a coding dimension still leaves untouched the logical possibility that spike-timing is the underlying basis for representation of location. The bat’s sonar is an ideal scientific test case for evaluating the alternativepossibility that the content of perceptions and spatial memories can be determined entirely by the timing of spikes in many neurons, not by which neurons respond with higher spike rates. Bats demonstrably perceive spatial images that are computed from the many single-spike responses evoked throughout the auditory nervous system when they emit broadcasts and receive echoes. Moreover, they form spatial memories that allow them to fly repeatedly along the same paths in a familiar space. When released at different locations in this space, bats determine their momentary location in the scene from only a short segment of flight and then insert themselves into their accustomed flight path. They must have a means of neuronal processing that supports image formation, memory development, and map read-out using the relative timing of single-spike responses distributed across different neurons, not response-rates and phases of spike trains. The practical significance of this project emerges from the simplification of sonar processing that comes from having virtually all of the neurons involved in broadcast and echo reception produce only one spike per sound. Comparisons of single-spike timing across many different cells is computationally much easier to implement in real time than the many multiplication operations and time-shifts required to execute the transforms and other algorithms used in digital signal processing. Moreover, the bat’s processing scheme uses analog values of time itself as the basis for most of the neuronal arithmetic, which sketches the design for an entirely new class of biomimetic computers. Current sonar signal processing methods involve the use of computationally very intensive transform-based algorithms on broadcast-echo time-series data structures. These methods are difficult to execute in real time. The ability of bats to orient effectively by sonar using massively parallel spike-timing computations demonstrates the existence of a practical alternative processing method that we are focused on identifying and evaluating for its potential as the basis for a new type of man-made sonar receiver. The technological rationale is that echolocating bats fly fast—at roughly 5 meters per second—while emitting up to 20-30 sonar signals in succession, but they have a relatively short sonar operating range of just 3-5 m for sensing small targets because their signals are attenuated by distance and atmospheric absorption, and because targets such as flying insects reflect weak echoes. For target ranges of 1 to 5 m, the corresponding delays of echoes are 6 to 30 ms. Consequently, a flying bat typically crosses one entire operating range every second or so and has to process sequences of echoes (broadcast-echo epochs) for multiple broadcasts very quickly during that brief interval, with each epoch lasting no more than 6 to 30 ms. Bats complete whole behavioral patterns such as detection, localization, and interception of prey, or zig-zagging passage through the tangle of leaves and branches in a tree, in half a second. There is no time for the bat to use response-rate coding because that necessarily involves integrating spike trains over intervals of hundreds of milliseconds, a length of time comparable to whole maneuvers, not individual broadcast-echo epochs. Using single-spike time comparisons across different neurons, the bat’s auditory arithmetic has been be stripped down to the essential minimum necessary to form images and guide flight in real time. From behavioral observations, acoustic recordings, and psychophysical tests, combined with neuronatomical and neurophysiological methods, we have identified a new kind of wideband sonar signal processing scheme in echolocating bats. "(A) Big brown bats and FM signals. The big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) is an insectivorous species that uses echolocation to orient in its surroundings and find prey. In the course of flying in the diverse surroundings they encounter in nature, big brown bats receive echoes from a variety of objects, including insects and vegetation–indeed, the whole complex scene of their immediate surroundings. (B) Auditory time-frequency representation of FM sounds. Big brown bats often capture flying prey in aerial maneuvers that involve tracking the target with head-aim, flight path, and such broadcast features as duration, interpulse interval, and frequency content of FM sweeps. Unusual for many nominally ―aerial-feeding‖ bats, they also capture insects from vegetation, where echoes from leaves and branches can create interference, or masking, that affects both the bat’s perception and its use of echolocation to find the target. Because big brown bats are so versatile in their foraging behavior, their echolocation has to adapt to different acoustic conditions—in open spaces, in so-called ―edge spaces,‖ and also in locations closely surrounded by vegetation. The presence of several harmonics in the sonar sounds of big brown bats is not typical for an aerial-feeding FM bat. Species that hunt for flying insects in open spaces typically cover the same wide frequency band in a single FM harmonic, whereas the majority of FM bats that hunt in vegetation for prey, or forage for fruit or flowers to feed on pollen and nectar, emit sonar sounds with 3 or more harmonics. The presence of the multiple harmonics in big brown bats sounds thus serves as an indication, confirmed by video observations, that these bats indeed do fly and even forage in vegetation, not just in open spaces or edge spaces. Crucially for our purposes, it also is a clue that the use of harmonics has some relation to resisting clutter interference. The presence of more than one harmonic sweep broadens the bandwidth of the FM signal overall while reducing the rate-of-sweep at any given frequency , which has advantages for sharp accuracy and resolution of echo delay combined with higher energy at each time-frequency element in the sound. However, the presence of harmonics and more bandwidth does not by itself solve the problem of clutter interference. The bat’s solution to clutter lies in how the harmonics affect events that occur deeper inside the bat’s nervous system. Consideration of the intrinsically active nature of echolocation, which involves adaptive signal design, scanning of the surroundings in depth and direction, adaptive responses in the auditory pathways, plus the presumed organization of the bat’s resulting perceptions into auditory images of scenes, brings our attention to auditory processing and not peripheral directionality as the likely origin of the bat’s ability to resist clutter interference. The use of FM echolocation sounds by most bat species has long been taken to mean that they use a time-frequency representation akin to a spectrogram. If so, they must exploit the presence of multiple FM sweeps to fully utilize the advantages of this representation. The use of a time-frequency representation has been confirmed by neurophysiological results showing that the bat’s auditory system breaks FM sweeps into their constituent frequencies and registers the time-of-occurrence of successive frequencies by the timing of neuronal responses.Moreover, several different kinds of behavioral experiments have demonstrated the bat’s performance implicates the use of a time-frequency representation for FM echolocation sounds. In particular, the proposition for matched-filter processing (i.e., pulse compression) as an explanation for the use of FM signals by bats has led to experiments that reveal the big brown bat’s echo-delay accuracy to indeed be approximately optimal (i.e., approximates the Cramer-Rao bound). Moreover, other behavioral experiments have demonstrated that these bats use echo spectral information to perceive target shape. From such results, a new type of experiment was designed to evaluate the perceptual structure of the bat’s biosonar images—specifically the means by which bats combine information about echo delay and echo spectra. The specific objective was to determine if the harmonic structure of the big brown bat’s biosonar sounds plays a role in recognition, or acceptance, of echoes from targets combined with interference rejection, or masking release, caused by echoes from clutter. This project began with an examination of how bats behave as they fly in controlled, quantitatively specified conditions of clutter. When bats were tested for obstacle-avoidance and orientation in arrays of vertically hanging chains that provide for varying densities and depths of the acoustic scene, their flight path and acoustic behavior revealed important new information regarding the minimum size of the sector to the front that the bat considers to be critical for detecting and avoiding obstacles. Each of the 4 bats tested either flew across the empty space in the low-density condition or along the corridor in the medium- and high-density conditions. In the course of each flight, they received strong echoes from all of the chains as well as the back wall of the room. For the low-density and medium-density conditions, the bats emitted their sonar sounds in essentially the same pattern, with interpulse intervals (IPIs) about evenly divided between 40-50 ms and 80-90 ms. However, in the high-density condition, more sounds were emitted, IPIs were shorter, and the sounds were grouped in pairs (“strobe-groups”), with successive sounds at alternating short (20-35 ms) and long (35-60 ms) intervals. Crucially, in the densest condition, the short intervals between members of strobe groups often were less than the delays of echoes from all of the chains or from the wall. This means that the bats often were still in the process of receiving echoes from one broadcast when they emitted the next broadcast, thus causing the train of echoes from the first sound to encroach upon the train of echoes from the second sound. The resulting overlap of echoes from more than one broadcast creates pulse-echo ambiguity about which echoes go with which emitted sounds—a serious problem for sonar because the receiver could register echo delays with respect to the wrong broadcast and display spurious, nonexistent ”targets”. The occurrence of pulse-echo ambiguity mounts to “self-induced clutter” where echoes of one broadcast can overlap and interfere with echoes of another broadcast and even be misrepresented in space. The transition in the bat’s acoustic behavior from medium-density to high-density condition is abrupt, indicating that the space to the bat’s front has become so restricted in the high-density array that the bats react by making many more sounds at higher repetition-rates and almost entirely in strobe group-pairs.
NER-19--5263Creation of DNA-based silver and gold nanowires and their study by spectroscopic and electron microscopic methodsGeorgian National Science FoundationGeorgian National Science Foundation23200 ლარი11.03.2020–11.03.2011Melikishvili Zaza (leading organization - TSU) Melikishvili Zaza "Creation of DNA-based silver and gold nanowires and their study by spectroscopic and electron microscopic methods (FR-19-5263, physics, biophysics) Stu participates in the project as a participating organization and only Z. Melikishvili, who in the project is mainly engaged in FRET and reflection spectroscopic studies. 2021 report Using spectrophotometric and fluorescence methods, it is shown that silver and gold ions in the solution can be restored to the atomic state with various reductants (ascorbic acid (AA) and NaBH4), DNA intercalated dyes (AO and EB), photoirradiation and γ-radiation (137Cs). Comparative analysis of recovered Ag+ and Au3+ ions shows that Ag+ ion can be recovered both by using ascorbic acid in the triple complex (DNA-Ag+-AA) and by irradiating DNA-Ag+- EB triple complex with light (=546nm). In the case of the DNA-Ag+-EB complex, the recovery efficiency is 77% of the recovery in the DNA-Ag+-AA complex. Recovery of Ag+ ions both free and in complex with DNA (in ethanol and NaNO3 solution) will not be affected by γ-radiation. Ag+-ion recovery using NaBH4 is also not admirable. The recovery of Au3+ ions in the Au3+-DNA-NaBH4-AA complex is more stable than that in the Au3+-DNA-AA complex. In the case of the EB-Au3+ ion complex, the recovery of the gold ion in the case of photoirradiation is also stable. Recovery of Au3+ ions by exposure to γ-radiation is possible both free and in complex with DNA. Recovery of gold ions without DNA is 2 times more efficient. Therefore, recovery with γ-radiation is ineffective. The reason for the ineffectiveness is damage to the DNA double helix by radiation. "
N : # 1.10.02Forward and backward stochastic differential Equations and their applications in probabilistic-statistical modelingFundamental Research grantGeorgian National Science Foundation/2001 – 2005 T. Toronjadze "M. Mania, R. Tevzadze, N. Lazrieva, T. Shervashidze, Z. Tsigroshvili,, O. Purtukhia " Various models of stochastic volatility are discussed and the method of constructing an optimal robust hedge by means of mean square is elaborated. A disorder problem is considered, where the change point, formed by continuous martingales, represents the moment of intersection of two probabilistic measures. A reflected stochastic differential equation is derived for the price process. An efficient estimate of the generalized M-estimate in the presence of a nuisance parameter is constructed. " A Bayesian-Martingale approach to the general problem of detecting the moment of regime violation is discussed. In the discussed set, the moment of regime violation is a random moment of bifurcation of two sizes given on some stochastic basis. A modified reflected stochastic equation for the cost of the optimal stopping problem corresponding to the given task is derived. It is shown that in classical problems of perturbation of Wiener and Poisson processes, this equation is equivalent to the free boundary value problem for the parabolic differential operator and the differential operator, respectively." "Conditions for the strong convergence of martingale measures are derived. Using stochastic control theory methods, variance-minimum and minimum entropy martingale measures are described. A continuous semimartingale with small noise is considered. An optimal B-robust estimate of the unknown multivariate parameter in the substitution coefficient is constructed. By the method of characteristic functions for a wide class of vector population densities, it is determined by the variation of the system of empirical mixed moments that the population approaches the normal distribution. The behaviour of constants in the evaluation of the modulus of the characteristic function of one degenerate multidimensional distribution was studied. A conditional binomial process, which allows the representation of composite sums as linear functions, was considered and the martingale properties of these processes are studied. Stochastic Analysis and Related Problems using the oblique projection technique, an efficient estimate of the generalized M-estimate in the presence of a nuisance parameter is constructed. The asymptotic behaviour of the solution of the Robbins-Monro type equation is studied. A modified stochastic differential equation is studied and an optimal hedge in the imperfect hedging problem is constructed. A unified characterization of p-optimal and minimum entropy martingale measures is given. "
N. ST07/3-172Martingale methods in optimal control, mathematical finance and statisticsFundamental Research grantShota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia98 445 ლარი2008 – 2009 T. ToronjadzeM. Mania, R. Tevzadze, N. Lazrieva, T. Shervashidze, Z. Tsigroshvili " The mean square hedging problem under conditions of partial information, when the observable flow does not contain complete information on the price of the underlying asset, is studied. The asymptotic behaviour of the Polyak averaging procedure is established using the solution of the Robins-Monro type stochastic differential equation. The utility maximization problem in the partially observable case for the exponential objective function is studied. It is shown that this problem is equivalent to an exponential optimization problem expressed in terms of observable processes. For the price function of the last task, the stochastic Bellman equation is derived and the construction of the optimal strategy is given. A characterization of the minimum entropy martingale measure in terms of the solution of the backward stochastic differential equation is obtained. The asymptotic behaviour of the Polyak averaging procedure is studied using the solution of the Robins-Monro type stochastic differential equation. It is shown that the corresponding normed process has an asymptotic expansion, which allows us to obtain the asymptotic distribution from the central limit theorem for martingales. When selecting conditional distributions according to the ergodic rule among a finite number of linear transformations of any fixed distribution, the normal approximation speed of the normal approximation of the distribution of the normalized sum of conditionally independent random vectors is obtained from the Cramerian conditions of normality with the limit of the normalized sums of independent random vectors in natural restrictions. The Ocone-Hausman-Clark formula for Poisson functionals is generalized and the explicit form of the integrand is established. The issues of existence and uniqueness of the solution of the second-order elliptic type differential equation in the Hilbert space are studied. The mean square hedging problem under conditions of limited information, when the observable flow does not contain complete information on the price of the underlying asset, is studied. A new type of martingale equation is introduced and the optimal strategy is constructed by solving this equation. The problem of recursive estimation of diffusion process coefficients is discussed. Based on the asymptotic behaviour of the solutions of stochastic differential equations of the Robins-Monro type, the asymptotic properties of recursive estimates are derived. For the discounted sums of conditionally independent random vectors controlled by the conditional distribution and the switching finite-state random sequence of the discounting matrices, marginal normality is established, and in a special case - a Gerber-type estimation of the approach speed. Multidimensional Poisson functionals are represented by a compensated Poisson process as a stochastic integral. A new definition of the stochastic projection operator is introduced and its properties are studied. The problem of calculating the distribution of full claims of insurance companies is studied. A method of calculating composite distributions is proposed, which is based on the recurrent calculation of the probability generating function.
N. GNSF/ST09_471_3-104First and second order Backward Stochastic differential equations and their application to stochastic control and financial mathematicsFundamental Research grantShota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia98 845 ლარი25.04.2013--25.04.2015Michael Mania "T. Toronjadze, O. Purtukhia, R. Tevzadze, N. Lazrieva, T. Shervashidze, Z. Tsigroshvili, B. Chickvinidze, T. Uzunashvili" "The problem of constructing utility maximizing investment strategies in complete and incomplete market models has been a major theme of mathematical finance throughout the past decade. However, in this by now classical problem, there is always the drawback that one assumes the underlying model to be exactly known and that for investors all the market information is available. In practical point of view it is essential to solve this problem under the presence of restricted information and model uncertainty. We shall focus our attention to two important cases 1) when only admissible values of the appreciation rate and the volatility of the basic assets are known 2) when the observable flow does not contain the full information on the underlying asset price process We derived Backward Stochastic Differential Equations (BSDEs) related to robust utility maximization problem and robust mean-variance hedging problem for general semimartingale market models when the family of subjective measures are equivalent (or absolutely continuous. Investigation of conditions of solvability of abovementioned BSDEs and PDEs enable to construct the optimal trading strategy as well as the optimal martingale measures. We shall distinguish cases when the problem admits an explicit solution. Besides, the construction of optimal strategies in abovementioned problems lead to extension of the Ocone-Klark formula and to explicit calculation of stochastic derivatives, which we plan also investigated. In parallel to the above mentioned control theory approach we are considering the “robust statistics approach” to robust hedging problem. We are considering stochastic volatility model, where the model of latent volatility process contains unknown multidimensional parameter in drift coefficient and small parameter in diffusion term. Detailed description (for completed project) In this research project we propose a cycle of theoretical works concerning different aspects of mathematical finance, stochastic optimal control, BSDE theory as well, as problems of model fitting, parameter estimation and discretization. Specifically the research will be devoted to the problems: utility maximization problem, mean-variance hedging, dynamic utility indifference valuation, solvability of Forward and Backward Stochastic Differential Equations, robust estimation and hedging, change-point problem. The second part of the project is devoted to statistical-computational aspects related to above mentioned problems. The scientific objectives of the project are devoted: i)A derivation of Backward Stochastic Differential Equations (BSDEs) related to robust utility maximization problem and robust mean variance hedging problem for general semimartingale market models when the family of subjective measures are equivalent ii) A derivation of Bellman’s equation related to robust utility maximization and robust hedging problem for diffusion stochastic volatility market models including the cases of uncertainty of the volatility iii) To study the problem of utility maximization and hedging under restricted information. Investigate the conditions of sufficiency of a sub-filtration. iv) Investigation of conditions of solvability of BSDEs and PDEs including equations arising in i), ii) and iii). v) To develope the robust statistics approach to robust hedging problem for stochastic volatility model, where the model of latent volatility process contains unknown multidimensional parameter in drift coefficient and small parameter in diffusion term. To study the robust procedure in statistical analysis of volatility process. That is construct and use in the model optimal B-robust estimate of unknown parameter in drift coefficient of volatility process. vi) Incorporate the second robust procedure in financial analysis of contingent claim hedging. That is construct and use for hedging purposes optimal V -robust trading strategy. vii) Investigation of the variational and/or weak convergence of matrix Abel sums of independent identically distributed random vectors aimed at modelling of financial flows) convergence in variation of matrix Abel sums of independent identically distributed random vectors to the normal law b)weak convergence of matrix Abel sums of independent identically distributed random vectors to nonnormal laws viii) The use of copula theory in financial applications ix) explicit expressions of stochastic derivatives for square integrable Wiener and Poisson functionals. We distinguish some additional problems related to the objectives, which we plan also studied. The utility maximization problem is closely related to the problem of pricing contingent claims in incomplete markets. One of our goal is to derive a backward stochastic PDE for the utility indifference price of a contingent claim. The utility indifference price, introduced by Hodges and Neuberger (1989), is defined via a utility maximization problem. The resulting valuation has been studied extensively in recent years using different methods. El Karoui and Rouge (2000) and Mania and Schweizer (2005) have studied the properties of the exponential utility indifference price process using BSDEs, driven by Brownian motion and by a martingale respectively. We plan to investigate the indifference price properties corresponding to power and logarithmic utilities, where in contrast to the exponential case, the price process depends on the initial capital and satisfies a backward stochastic PDE (instead of a BSDE), which is more difficult to investigate. We shall study also this problem in robust setting. Aside from the problem mentioned in objective iii), we shall consider a financial market model where the distribution of the asset price process is changing at some random moment, and investigate the mean-variance and exponential hedging problems in this context, which corresponds to a hedging problem under partial information. We shall derive the forward SDE for the posterior probability process for our model, which is a key quantity for solving this problem. We plan to solve the problems listed in objective v)-vi) by using existing and by developing various new statistical methods of parametric and nonparametric estimation, hypothesis testing, robust and recursive parameter estimation. We shall also investigate various approximation schemes to reduce the biases arising via discretization in estimation and hedging problems, as well as for purposes of simulation and model fitting. " "In this research project we propose a cycle of theoretical works concerning different aspects of mathematical finance, stochastic optimal control, BSDE theory as well, as problems of model fitting, parameter estimation and discretization. Specifically the research will be devoted to the problems: utility maximization problem, mean-variance hedging, dynamic utility indifference valuation, solvability of Forward and Backward Stochastic Differential Equations, robust estimation and hedging, change-point problem. The second part of the project is devoted to statistical-computational aspects related to above mentioned problems. The scientific objectives of the project are devoted: i)A derivation of Backward Stochastic Differential Equations (BSDEs) related to robust utility maximization problem and robust mean variance hedging problem for general semimartingale market models when the family of subjective measures are equivalent ii) A derivation of Bellman’s equation related to robust utility maximization and robust hedging problem for diffusion stochastic volatility market models including the cases of uncertainty of the volatility iii) To study the problem of utility maximization and hedging under restricted information. Investigate the conditions of sufficiency of a sub-filtration. iv) Investigation of conditions of solvability of BSDEs and PDEs including equations arising in i), ii) and iii). v) To develope the robust statistics approach to robust hedging problem for stochastic volatility model, where the model of latent volatility process contains unknown multidimensional parameter in drift coefficient and small parameter in diffusion term. To study the robust procedure in statistical analysis of volatility process. That is construct and use in the model optimal B-robust estimate of unknown parameter in drift coefficient of volatility process. vi) Incorporate the second robust procedure in financial analysis of contingent claim hedging. That is construct and use for hedging purposes optimal V -robust trading strategy. vii) Investigation of the variational and/or weak convergence of matrix Abel sums of independent identically distributed random vectors aimed at modelling of financial flows) convergence in variation of matrix Abel sums of independent identically distributed random vectors to the normal law b)weak convergence of matrix Abel sums of independent identically distributed random vectors to nonnormal laws viii) The use of copula theory in financial applications ix) explicit expressions of stochastic derivatives for square integrable Wiener and Poisson functionals. We distinguish some additional problems related to the objectives, which we plan also studied. The utility maximization problem is closely related to the problem of pricing contingent claims in incomplete markets. One of our goal is to derive a backward stochastic PDE for the utility indifference price of a contingent claim. The utility indifference price, introduced by Hodges and Neuberger (1989), is defined via a utility maximization problem. The resulting valuation has been studied extensively in recent years using different methods. El Karoui and Rouge (2000) and Mania and Schweizer (2005) have studied the properties of the exponential utility indifference price process using BSDEs, driven by Brownian motion and by a martingale respectively. We plan to investigate the indifference price properties corresponding to power and logarithmic utilities, where in contrast to the exponential case, the price process depends on the initial capital and satisfies a backward stochastic PDE (instead of a BSDE), which is more difficult to investigate. We shall study also this problem in robust setting. Aside from the problem mentioned in objective iii), we shall consider a financial market model where the distribution of the asset price process is changing at some random moment, and investigate the mean-variance and exponential hedging problems in this context, which corresponds to a hedging problem under partial information. We shall derive the forward SDE for the posterior probability process for our model, which is a key quantity for solving this problem. We plan to solve the problems listed in objective v)-vi) by using existing and by developing various new statistical methods of parametric and nonparametric estimation, hypothesis testing, robust and recursive parameter estimation. We shall also investigate various approximation schemes to reduce the biases arising via discretization in estimation and hedging problems, as well as for purposes of simulation and model fitting." "We shall distinguish some expected results according to objectives of the project. Objective i) We expect to show that in case when the model uncertainty is given as a family of equivalent probability measures, under some regularity conditions the value function related to the robust utility maximization problem satisfies a certain backward stochastic PDE. We characterize the optimal investment strategy and the optimal measure in terms of a solution of abovementioned equations. We shall distinguish cases when this problem admits an explicit solution. Objective ii) For diffusion market models we shall study the problem of existence and uniqueness of a solution of Bellman’s equation related to the robust hedging in cases when only addmissible values of appreciated rate and volatility parameter are known. We shall give characterization of the minimax strategy in terms of solutions of the Bellman equation. In particular cases we shall give also explicit solutions of the problem. Objective iii) We consider exponential and mean-variance hedging problems under partial Information. The underlying asset price process follows a continuous semimartingale and strategies have to be constructed when the only part of the information in the market is available. Moreover, the flow of observable events not necessarily contains all information on prices of the underlying asset. We reduce initial problems to corresponding new problems with additional correction terms, which are formulated in terms of observable processes. We prove that the value function of the reduced problem is a unique solution of certain backward stochastic differential equations and the filtered wealth process of the optimal hedging strategy can be expressed explicitly in terms of the solution. In some particular cases (e.g., if the mean variance trade-off is deterministic) one can obtain explicit solutions of the problem . Objective iv) If the generator of the BSDE driven by a local martingale satisfies the quadratic growth condition and the final random variable is bounded, then there exists a unique bounded solution. Besides, we consider stochastic control problem related to the Navier-Stoks system and obtain representation of the solution in terms of the value function of this problem. Objectives v-vi) We shall construct and use in the model optimal B-robust estimate of unknown parameter in drift coefficient of volatility process. Incorporate the second robust procedure in financial analysis of contingent claim hedging. That is to construct and use for hedging purposes optimal V -robust trading strategy. These results are important for practical application to the problems of financial economics, because this “double robust” strategy will be more attractive to protect the hedger against the possible errors. Objective vii) We shall prove a local limit theorem for densities, Prokhorov type theorem on the convergence in variation and Omey type theorem for a symmetric stable limiting law, when distribution of a summand belongs to the domain of attraction of such law. Objective viii) To apply Copula analysis and simulations technique to financial time series analysis and forecasting The new definition of stochastic derivative of Poisson functionals. Objective ix) Generalization of the Haussmann-Clark formula and an integrations by parts formula, the definition of Sobolev type spaces, the analogue of the Ito and the Ito-Vent¬sel formula for anticipative stochastic integrals in the Poisson case."
IZ73Z0_127943 /1 Hydrazine-assisted Routes to 1D Nitride and Oxide Nanomaterials for Environmental and Energy ApplicationsScientific Co-operation between Eastern Europe and SwitzerlandGrant from the Swiss National Science Foundation 30000 CHF2011-2012D. Jishiashvili(Georgia), G. Patske (Switzerland) "D. Jishiashvili; Z. Shiolashvili;; N. Makhatadze; A. Jishiashvili" "The aim of the project was to develop a pyrolytic technology to increase the cost of nanowires. Synthesis of oxide and nitride nanowires of various compositions. We also grew nanowires of other compositions, namely phosphide, core-shell type, and nanostructures decorated with nanoparticles. The best gas sensors manufactured have shown high sensitivity to H2S, capable of detecting a single hydrogen sulfide molecule mixed with a million other molecules. " "The goal of the project was to develop hydrazine-based technologies for the production of one-dimensional oxide and nitride nanomaterials and the subsequent use of these nanomaterials for environmental and energy purposes. The use for environmental purposes basically meant the use for gas sensors and therefore the protection of the environment from the dangerous content of toxic gases. The energy goals included creating photocatalysts that could use the ultraviolet light of sunlight to photocatalytically split water into oxygen and hydrogen. The work was supported by grant funding from the Swiss National Science Foundation. The accomplices from the Swiss side were members of the scientific group of Professor G. Patzke of the Faculty of Chemistry of the University of Zurich.. The main goal of the project was to develop a technology for growing hydrazine-based nanowires for joining nitride and oxynitride nanomaterials. The dosed addition of water molecules to hydrazine (N2H4) expanded the composition of the synthesized materials, as it made it possible to obtain oxynitrides of a controlled composition. Initial research towards synthesis included the synthesis of germanium-based nanowires, which was successfully carried out. Highly crystalline Ge3N4 nanowires have been obtained. Depending on the synthesis temperature, they were grown by different methods. In particular, up to a temperature of 500°С, growth was carried out by the vapor-liquid method, at a temperature of 520°С by the mechanism of growth with the help of oxygen, and at a higher temperature, by the vapor-solid-phase method, and rather large single crystals of germanium nitride with a size of tens of micrometers were obtained. Studies have shown that the decomposition products of hydrazine, namely the NH2 and NH radicals, are not only active nitrifying precursors, but also active reducing agents capable of absorbing oxygen from various metal oxide molecules. After these studies, preliminary experiments were carried out on the developed technology for obtaining nanowires based on InP. As is known, at temperatures of the order of 400°C, InP decomposes into metallic indium and gaseous phosphorus. In the technology developed by us, water mixed with hydrazine forms stoichiometric indium oxide - In2O3, which is reduced to a volatile suboxide by amino radicals and other decomposition products, including hydrogen. In2O evaporates, is deposited on the substrate, where it interacts with the phosphor and grows in the form of InP nanowires. When zinc was added to the starting material together with InP, a core-shell nanostructure was obtained, the core of which was InP, and the shell was Zn3(PO4)2. The use of gallium in the source along with InP made it possible to grow nanowires of the InP/Ga2O3 type. Nanostructures decorated with InN nanoparticles were also fabricated. On the basis of the synthesized nanomaterial, gas sensors were fabricated and tested, the sensitivity of which to H2S was 1 ppm. The nanowires were coated with ruthenium nanoparticles, which were used as a catalyst. " "As a result of the project, a pyrolytic technology for the synthesis of one-dimensional nanowires was developed, nanowires and nanocatalysts of various compositions were obtained. Gas sensors were created on the basis of nanowires of the following composition: In2O3, Ge3N4, InP, InN, InP/Ga2O3, Zn3(PO4)2. The sensitivity of the best sensor to H2S was ppm. "
SRNSF N04/05-2016, USTC #6204Development of new technologies for growing nanowires and manufacturing ultrasensitive gas sensorsTargeted research and development program Competition of state scientific grants. Foundation named after Shota Rustaveli and STCU - Ukrainian Science and Technology Center.34 950 აშშ დოლარი01.06.2016 – 01.06. 2018D. Jishiashvili "D. Jishiashvili; Z. Shiolashvili; A. Chirakadze; L. Chkhartishvili; N. Makhatadze; A. Jishiashvili; G.Chonishvili" "The aim of the project was to develop a new technology for growing nanowires and fabricate ultrasensitive (sensitivity range: 1 ppm -100 ppb, i.e. detection and measurement from one million to one hundred billion molecules) sensors based on them. Pyrolytic and microwave technologies have been developed for growing one-dimensional nanostructures. During the project, nanowires and nanostructures of the following composition were obtained: InP, In2O3, InN, In2Ge2O7, Ge3N4, Inp/Ga2O3 core-shell nanowires decorated with InN nanoparticles, etc. Nanomaterials and their parameters were studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray structural analysis and infrared spectroscopy, and photometry. An ammonia sensor was fabricated based on In2O3 nanowires, the sensitivity of which was 0.7 ppm at 280°C. " "The main goal of the project can be divided into three parts. The first goal was to develop various technologies for growing nanowires; The second goal was to study the physical properties and parameters of the synthesized nanowires by various methods, and the third goal was to manufacture and test an ultrasensitive gas sensor based on nanowires. Technological research was carried out mainly in two directions: the development of pyrolytic technology and the creation of microwave technology. In the first case, we demonstrated the synthesis of hydrazine (N2H4) in pyrolysis decomposition products, and in the second case, we used microwave heating to synthesize one-dimensional nanomaterials. Studies have clearly shown us that during pyrolysis, active radicals NH and NH2 are formed, on the basis of which nitration is carried out at a relatively low temperature of ~500°С, and with microwave irradiation, the synthesis proceeds quickly, because Microwave (~4 GHz) internal sections of the material are efficiently heated with minimal heat loss. During the project, nanowires and nanostructures of the following compositions were obtained: InP, In2O3, InN, In2Ge2O7, Ge3N4, Inp/Ga2O3 core-shell nanowires decorated with InN nanoparticles, etc. The properties and parameters of one-dimensional nanomaterials have been studied by many analytical methods, including X-ray diffraction, UV-NIR photometry, infrared spectroscopy in the range of 2.5-25 μm, spectrophotometry in the range of 186-1100 nm, scanning tunneling microscopy, volt-ammeter.- and in the area nanoamp. A sensor was fabricated in which a section of a nanowire was placed between gold linear electrodes 5 µm wide. In turn, the gold electrodes were deposited on the glass. Such electrodes were manufactured and supplied by the Spanish company Micrux. The best result was demonstrated by a gas sensor based on In2O3 nanowires, capable of detecting 700 ammonia molecules dissolved in a billion other molecules. " Pyrolytic and microwave technologies for the synthesis of oxide, nitride, oxynitride, and phosphide nanowires have been developed; Their physical parameters are determined; Gas sensors are based on synthesized nanomaterials; The best performance was obtained with the indium oxide gas sensor, which had a sensitivity to ammonia gas of 700 ppb at 280°C, and response and recovery times of 45 and 51 seconds, respectively.
PhDF2016_113Synthesis of One-Dimensional Nanomaterials in Hydrazine Vapors and Study of Their PropertieCompetition for funding doctoral educational programs of the National Science Foundation. Shota Rustaveli in 2016Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation21 000 ლარი2016–2017D. JishiashviliA. Jishiashvili The work performed is of a technological nature, and a new technology for obtaining one-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials has been developed in it. A novelty is the use of hydrazine containing 3 mol.% water, in the vapors of which nanowires were grown. A new vacuum technological device has been developed that ensures the growth of one-dimensional nanomaterials in the region of pyrolytic gaseous precursors. In addition to using a new reactor, the advantage of the process plant is the complexity of its vacuum system and reaction chamber (reactor). In particular, the vacuum system is arranged with metal pumps, and the metal reacts with the decomposition products of hydrazine, which is unacceptable for the technology. To prevent this from happening, we isolated the vacuum system from the reactor core with a polypropylene valve and built the next system only from chemically inert quartz, glass and polypropylene materials. Using this technology, nanowires of oxides, nitrides and oxynitrides of indium and germanium were obtained, their structure, composition, and some optical parameters were studied. The work formed the basis of the dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Science. The aim of our project was to develop a new efficient low-temperature technology for growing various semiconductor nanowires (including nitride and core-clad nanowires) and to study their morphology, composition, structure, and some properties. To lower the synthesis temperature, it is proposed to use vapors of hydrazine and ammonium chloride, since they provide very active, reductive, and chemically assimilable precursors upon pyrolytic decomposition. To achieve these goals, the first task was to create a technological device for growing nanowires by the pyrolytic method. To solve this problem, it was necessary to use chemically inert materials, such as quartz or glass. Unfortunately, a system made of such fragile materials, especially with a reactor that has to be removed and attached to the system very often, is rather fragile and inconvenient for technology. In addition, a glass vacuum system with a glass diffusion pump is rather inefficient, since it has a low pumping speed - 50-60 liters per second (in terms of air), which is also technologically ""unprofitable"". To solve the problem, we have created a technological device that avoids all of these problems or significantly reduces them. The developed technology makes it possible to obtain germanium nitride at 350°C and indium nitride at 150°C at a lower temperature than that described in the literature for the synthesis of the same nanomaterials. Active precursors obtained by the pyrolytic decomposition of hydrazine and volatile molecules (GeO and In2O) capable of transporting Ge and In atoms to the nanowire growth front have been determined. When synthesizing Ge3N4 from a source of Ge, nanowires are grown at 500°C by the VLS method. At 520°С, the growth mechanism changes to VS and nanobelts are obtained, and at 540°С, germanium nitride crystalline microblocks are synthesized. All the listed nanomaterials have the α-Ge3N4 structure, the diameter of the smallest nanowire is 3 nm, the thickness of the nanobelt is two monolayers; The annealing of the In source in hydrazine at 400°С yielded first conical In2O3 nanowires grown from the In catalyst by the osm method, then In2O3 nanowires of the same diameter and indium oxide nanowires grown at 440°С by the ohm method. Simultaneous firing of In and Ge sources at 420°C yielded a mixture of diamond-type Ge nanowires and cubic In2O3 nanowires grown by the osm method, since GeO molecules were reduced by indium suboxide, which, in turn, was oxidized to In2O3. By calcining a combined In+Ge source in hydrazine at 440°C, large-area In2Ge2O7 nanowires decorated with InN nanoparticles were obtained. It has been established that in the case of the Ge source, high monitoring properties of the products of the pyrolytic decomposition of hydrazine are manifested, in the case of the In source, a high oxidizing nature. In the case of a combined Ge+In source, both are oxidative and nitride-forming. On the basis of In2O3 nanowires synthesized at 440°C, a simple gas sensor was fabricated, the sensitivity of which to ammonia reached the level of 1 ppm. As a result of this work, a new technological device was manufactured, in which the main elements of the vacuum system are made of chemically inert polypropylene. As for the reactor, it was made of quartz material resistant to high temperatures. The thermochemical analysis of possible chemical reactions of nanomaterials synthesis has been carried out. This made it possible to evaluate the activity of the synthesis precursors, the spontaneity of the reactions, and the nature of their occurrence at different temperatures. Nitride, oxide and oxynitride nanowires based on germanium and indium have been synthesized. A gas sensor was made that allows detecting 1 molecule of ammonia mixed with an air molecule
# 7089 Development and study of new nanomaterials for the self-regulated magnetic hyperthermia of cancer celsA competition has been announced as part of the Targeted Research and Development Program, 2017Scientific Technology Center in Ukraine, Ukraine30050 დოლარი23.03.2018 22.03. 2020A. ChirakadzeD. Jishiashvili, Z. Shiolashvili, N. Makhatadze, A. Jishiashvili Despite the progress of modern oncology, it is vital to develop new modern methods and tools for the treatment of cancer, including research into new combinations of various methods and modalities for the fight against cancer and their synergistic interaction. The goal of the project was to develop a variety of nanoparticles for local hyperthermia of cancer, the characteristics of which correspond to the therapeutic Curie temperature range (TC=41-450C), strictly controlled high crystallinity, monodispersity, uniformity, "strong" magnetic properties, dispersion, good biocompatibility and safety of degradation products. .. Requirements. Interesting results were obtained during the project. "Research carried out within the framework of the project showed that synthesized materials with a nickel content of (71.25-71.75) ± 0.25 atm. % can be successfully used for therapeutic temperature-controlled hyperthermia in the therapeutic range of 41-45 O. If necessary, materials (71.75-73.5) atm. %Can be used for thermal ablation. Samples of the composition AgxLa1-x MnO3x = 0.15 were obtained using two different microwave power levels (1000 W and 700 W) and firing at 650 0C for 240 minutes. . In all tested samples, the values of the observed magnetic moment at 700 W are noticeably (up to 12%) lower than at 1000 W, which may be due to some unidentified ""direct"" influence of the microwave electromagnetic field. on the crystal structure or with the features of the formation of structural defects in the samples. Within the framework of the project, up to 10 modern technological methods were analyzed and tested. At first, to achieve fast and well-controlled growth of nanoalloys, preference was given to thermal treatment of nanopowders under the action of ammonium chloride and hydrazine, but then original microwave technological low-temperature methods were developed, which are described below, providing well-controlled growth, a high degree of crystallinity, and monodispersity of the obtained nanoparticles. In order to increase the information content, accuracy and safety of testing nanoparticles and their dispersion solutions on experimental animals and (in the future) on patients, a combined testing method was tested, which, along with the determination of purely behavioral indicators, implies the measurement of the relative change in blood oxygen saturation, systolic pressure and temperature. bodies when leaving the maze and the corresponding formula of the so-called. determine the toxicity index. The new method combines the observation of other important physiological parameters, which increases its sensitivity, accuracy and safety. The toxicity index is measured with veterinary equipment available at any medical facility (pulse oximeter, infrared thermometer, tail blood pressure monitor and cuff). A new formula for measuring the combined toxicity index has been introduced, which includes 7 measurable parameters: CTI = [(N1/N) • (Tl /Td)] • (ΔBP + ΔTb/S)2 (1) where N1 is the total number of errors made during the passage of the maze, N is the total number of decisions made during the passage of the maze, Tl is the total time of passage through the maze, Td is the time spent in the ""closed"" sections, ΔBP and ΔTb are the relative changes in systolic blood pressure and temperature body, S is the average value of blood oxygen saturation. The results calculated by formula (1) were compared with the results of measuring blood rheological parameters and only behavioral parameters. A good mutual correlation of the results obtained by all three methods indicates the high accuracy and reliability of the results obtained by formula (1) and the methods used in general. A total of 100 dispersed preparations were developed and tested, and for control, a dispersed nanopowder of iron oxide (Fe2O3) with a purity of 99.9%, a size of 60 ± 3 nm, manufactured by the German company Nanograph was used. The test was carried out in 10 stages. Each stage lasted 21 days. For 3 days, 50 white rats, divided into 10 groups, were injected into the muscle with 10 preparations of the same dose and concentration, after which a standard maze test was performed for 15 days, in control samples, all parameters given in formula (1). The testing process was recorded by a video camera almost continuously. The test results were processed within three days. The dependence curves of the calculated toxicity index on time (in days) were compared with the curve of a commercially available iron oxide preparation, as a result of which the overall toxicity of the developed preparations was evaluated. During the implementation of the implemented scientific project, additional goals of the project were formed and the tasks that need to be solved to achieve them were identified: creation and testing of nanomaterials and dispersed nanofluids obtained by coating the surface of nanoparticles with zinc phosphate and encapsulating them in hexagonal boron nitride nanofibers; Based on the created and tested nanoparticles and nanofluids, the creation and testing of nanofluids with high therapeutic potential against the new coronavirus; Development of an action plan for the implementation of the achieved results (preclinical trials). Encouraging results have been obtained in this direction, and an approximate plan for preclinical testing of the project's products has been developed. It is clear that, despite the progress of modern oncology, it is vital to develop new modern methods and tools for the treatment of cancer, including research into new combinations of various methods and modalities for the fight against cancer and their synergistic interaction. The goal of the project was to develop a variety of nanoparticles for local hyperthermia of cancer, the characteristics of which correspond to the therapeutic Curie temperature range (TC=41-450C), strictly controlled high crystallinity, monodispersity, uniformity, ""strong"" magnetic properties, dispersion, good biocompatibility and safety of degradation products. .. Requirements. Interesting results were obtained during the project " "1. The temperature used in whole body hyperthermia should not exceed 40°C due to inevitable changes in blood rheology and significant side effects. 2. Controlled local magnetic hyperthermia using nanofluids is allowed within the range of 41-45 0С and all their positive indicators are an order of magnitude higher than the hyperthermia of the whole body. 3. Four new microwave technological methods for the synthesis and annealing of nanoparticles have been developed and tested. 4. 100 pilot samples (nanofluids) for local hyperthermia have been obtained and tested, of which up to 50 may be promising for radio/chemotherapy and prevention of the new coronavirus. 5. A preliminary plan for preclinical studies has been developed and an agreement has been reached with an Anglo-Ukrainian engineering company to ensure the implementation of the main results. "
YS-19-087Synthesis and research of wide-bandgap semiconductor nanomaterials for use in UV photodetectors.Grant competition for young scientistsShota Rustaveli National Science Foundation. 49200 ლარი2019-2021L. Chkhartishvili A. Jishiashvili " The aim of the project was the synthesis of wide-bandgap (more than 3 eV) semiconductor nanowires, the research of their properties and parameters, the creation of a photodetector operating in the UV-C range, and the determination of its parameters. In accordance with the tasks set, a technology for the synthesis of nanomaterials was developed. The following nanomaterials were obtained: CuGeO3, In2Ge2O7, Ge3N4, ZnO, Zn2GeO4, In2O3, CuO, BN. Photodetectors were fabricated and tested on their basis " "The project had two goals. The first concerned the development of a new pyrolytic technology, which could be used to obtain wide-gap semiconductor materials. The second goal was related to the study of the properties of the obtained nanomaterials, namely their composition, structure, morphology, electrical and optical properties. In accordance with the first task of the project, a new vacuum plant was assembled. with a quartz reactor. The gas was dosed into the reactor through a rotameter. The correspondence of the power consumed by the heater to the temperatures of the bottom of the reactor and the silicon wafer separated from it at certain distances (up to 3 centimeters) was determined in advance. The maximum power did not exceed 250 W, while the bottom temperature was ~700°C. The main task in establishing technological regimes was to achieve monodispersity of a one-dimensional nanomaterial, a high aspect ratio, a minimum diameter, a high degree of technological reproduction, and a stoichiometric composition. For each individual material, technological modes for obtaining the corresponding parameters were determined. The following nanomaterials were obtained: CuGeO3, In2Ge2O7, Ge3N4, ZnO, Zn2GeO4, In2O3, CuO, BN. We have studied the structure, morphology, and composition of this nanomaterial. The fourth half of the project was completely devoted to the manufacture of ultraviolet photodetectors and their testing. For this, a special stand was made, on which sources of ultraviolet light were installed: a 1 kV xenon lamp and a high-pressure mercury lamp (DRSH type). The clamps of the detector and filter were also placed, as well as contact wiring, with the help of which the parameters of the detector were measured and transmitted to the computer via the Kiythley 2400 interface. UV photodetectors were fabricated by placing a network of nanowires between two interdigitated gold line electrodes on glass. The distance between the electrodes was 5 μm. Comparison of measurement data showed that photodetectors based on zinc oxide ZnO have the best parameters. Measurement of the CVC in the dark and under light irradiation of 9 mW/cm2 with a wavelength of 254 nm showed that the graphs are symmetrical about the voltage axis of 0 V, which proves that the contacts between both applied gold linear electrodes to glass and gold ball electrodes are ohmic. and no additional resistance is created here. The most important parameter of the detector is its sensitivity, which is mainly determined by the ratio of currents passing through the detector in darkness and illumination. Calculations showed that this ratio in our detector includes almost three orders of magnitude (2x102 and 3x10–1 μs). Thus, the response and recovery times for our detector are 0.51 and 0.39 s. For reference, we cite that for a sufficiently good Ga2O3 detector, this time is 0.45 and 0.24 s, respectively. This indicates good prospects for creating a high-quality photodetector operating in the UV-C range based on our material. " "A technological method for obtaining wide-gap semiconductor nanomaterials based on pyrolysis has been developed. Their composition, structure, optical and electrical parameters have been studied. Photodetectors operating in the ultraviolet c region were fabricated by inserting a network of nanowires between two comb (interdigital) gold line electrodes on glass. The detector made on the basis of zinc oxide showed us the best parameters. Measurement of the CVC in the dark and under light irradiation of 9 mW/cm2 with a wavelength of 254 nm showed that the graphs are symmetrical about the voltage axis of 0 V, which proves that the contacts between both applied gold linear electrodes to glass and gold ball electrodes are ohmic. and no additional resistance is created here. The most important parameter of the detector is its sensitivity, which is mainly determined by the ratio of currents passing through the detector in darkness and illumination. Calculations showed that this ratio in our detector includes almost three orders of magnitude (2x102 and 3x10–1 μs). "
საგრანტო ხელშეკრულება № PhDF2016_59Technology and physical properties of some ferromagnetic nanofluidsPhD grantShota Rustaveli National Science Foundaiton (SRNSF)41800 ლარი23.09.2016 02.11.2018Jano MarkhuliaJano Markhulia Among the broad spectrum of nanoscale materials magnetic fluids - colloids containing magnetic nanoparticles have gained significant attention due to their interesting physicochemical, pharmacokinetic, and magnetic properties. Among these magnetite and maghemite have been considered very promising and popular candidates due to their biocompatibility and heating and magnetic properties. To attain reliable and high performance in practical applications, magnetic particles with a regular spherical shape, narrow size distributions, high-saturation magnetization, and good dispersion in liquid media are very important. Therefore, the synthesis of monodispersed, water-dispersible, and regular spherical superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with high saturation magnetization will be of great importance. This project offered the obtain of monodispersed magnetic nanofluids, stabilized by various biocompatible surfactants, synthesized by a continuous production line, designed by us. This technology, taking into account the conditions and stages of chemical co-precipitation, and the choice of optimal reaction parameters, improve the technology of synthesis of magnetic nanofluids. In order to reduce the wide distribution of particle size, we use the electrohydraulic effect at one of a stage of the synthesis of magnetic nanofluids. Also in the presented work, will be studied magnetic and optical properties of magnetic nanofluids obtained by our technology, which is stabilized by different biocompatible surfactants. Will be evaluated the degree of monodispersity in obtained ferrofluids, also will be determined sedimentation and aggregate stability, structural composition, and morphology of the obtained nanofluids. on the basis of experimental data, will be made conclusions about the prospects for further application of these nanoparticles for biomedical applications. Surface-modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and magnetic nanofluids on their basis are a kind of novel functional materials, which have been widely used in various areas. Currently, the main task is to develop nano-sized magnetic particle synthesis methods and study their properties. In this project, by suitable modification of the standard synthetic procedure with a controlled co-precipitation technique in a one-pot approach, in particular with the help of an automated chemical reactor, taking into account all the conditions and stages of the chemical coprecipitation reaction, and also by choosing the optimal reaction parameters, the synthesis of magnetic ferrofluids and their subsequent coating (stabilization) by biocompatible molecules was carried out. The optical and magnetic characteristics, crystal structure, phase composition, and morphology of the obtained magnetic ferrofluids stabilized by various biocompatible surface active molecules (surfactants, polymers) were studied using such research techniques and methods such as Vibrating Sample Magnetometer, UV-VIS spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering, X-ray diffraction, Small Angle X-ray Scattering, Small Angle Neutron Scattering, Transmission Electron Microscopy. In addition, the bactericidal properties and the cancer-therapeutic effect of obtaining magnetic nanofluids were also studied. These researches were carried out in Georgia as well as in European Research Scientific Centers (Wiganer Research Institute of Physics, Hungary; Research Center for Natural Sciences, Hungary). This work is interdisciplinary. The deep study of issues requires the integration of qualified knowledge and the exchange of experiences of scientists working in the field of physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine. During the grant period, close relationships were established with both local and European research centers (Hungary, Romania, Austria). The realization of the planned goals of the presented project, in particular, the synthesis of reproduced ferromagnetic nanofluids based on magnetite nanoparticles modified by biocompatible surface molecules, by improving the synthesis technology, is a prerequisite for the functioning of functional nanoparticles, which is a step forward in the field of nanotechnology. In this grant project, by modifying the standard procedure of the chemical coprecipitation method, namely using an automated chemical reactor, taking into account the conditions and stages of the coprecipitation reaction, as well as by selecting the optimal reaction parameters, a ferromagnetic nanofluid containing nanoparticles of iron oxide (magnetite) was synthesized and stabilized with molecules some biocompatible substances; 2) Magnetic and optical characteristics, crystal structure, phase composition, and morphology of samples of synthesized ferromagnetic nanofluids were studied using research techniques and methods such as vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), optical spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS); Transmission electron microscope (TEM). 3) In addition, the bactericidal properties and cancer therapeutic effects of the obtained samples were also studied; Through bactericidal studies, it was established that nanoparticles surrounded by PEG have a bactericidal effect, it is shown that this effect depends on the growth phase of bacteria; 4) Also, during the in vivo studies on the mouse prostate gland tumor model of the magnetic nanofluid synthesized by us, the positive therapeutic effect of iron oxide nanoparticles, both mono and in combination with the chemotherapeutic drug mitoxantrone, increased the effectiveness of the latter.
PG/54/3-250/1Determining the efficiency of an electrohydraulic device for the synthesis of fine dispersion of magnetite nanoparticles of medical usePresidential Scientific Grants for Young ScientistsShota Rustaveli National Scientific Foundation 10500 ლარი23.12.2014 - 23.12.2015 v.mikelashvili v.mikelashvili When synthesizing a magnetic liquid for medical use, which is a colloidal dispersion of particles by volume with a percentage of 25%, it is necessary to solve several tasks: first, it is necessary to obtain a small (8–15 nm) size of magnetic particles and it is necessary to cover the particles of the dispersed phase with a molecular layer of the stabilizer, which should prevent the particles from sticking together and should also provide a single domain dispersed in the fluid-carrier formation of a stable colloidal system of magnetic particles. Dispersion methods available today, such as ultrasonication and centrifugation, provide a partial solution the average degree of dispersion, which is expressed in the separation of particles stuck in the liquid, but some particles of large size (in the order of 20-80 nm size) is a difficult process and requires high energy for their dissolving. The project proposes an electrohydraulic processing of nanofluid containing Fe3O4 nanoparticles obtained by chemical method. The advantage of the processing method is to obtain better dispersion and homogeneous dispersion over the ultrasonic processing method. The essence of this method is to carry out a discharge with a special impulse in a liquid placed in a closed or open tank. with an electrical charge, resulting in a high hydraulic pressure around the discharge zone, which performs Useful for mechanical work, preferably mechanical crushing. Resonant processes and powerful infrastructure Ultrasonic vibrations additionally disperse and remove large materials, break the sorption and chemical bonds of the particles, which is included in the composition of the medium, the concentration of the obtained magnetic nanofluid will be investigated within the project and magnetic characteristics, the sizes of nanoparticles will be evaluated. Nanofluid containing magnetite (Fe3O4) was synthesized under different conditions. Optimum parameters of the synthesis were selected when we obtain magnetic nanoparticles suspended in a liquid (distillation water) with a diameter of 10-20 nm with a concentration of 11%. To achieve high homogeneity, the obtained particles were processed by our refined and improved electrohydraulic method and coated/coated with surfactants such as ascorbic acid, polyethylene glycol. The sedimentation properties and stability of the obtained liquids were studied. Measurements of concentration and magnetic properties were carried out. Prospects of obtained liquids for medical use were determined. The electrohydraulic method for obtaining finely dispersed and homogeneous magnetic fluids showed a 22% improvement in the fragmentation of sedimented and synthesized large particles compared to existing analogues such as centrifugation and ultrasonic treatment. In addition to the fact that magnetite is a constituent of many living organisms, electrohydraulic treatment adds bactericidal properties to the liquid. The combination of high detoxifying and immunostimulant properties allows their successful use in medical terms
YS17_15Synthesis of bio-applicable magnetic nanofluid using plasma generation in liquid2017 Young Scientists Research Grants CompetitionShota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia58300 ლარი10/01/2016 - 10/01/2018V.Mikelashvili V.Mikelashvili "Biocompatibility and magnetic properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles make them ideal tools for a broad range of applications in biomedicine. A major technological problem in the preparation of biocompatible magnetic nanofluids is obtaining control over the synthesis and dispersion of nanoparticles in the solution. To ensure adequate dispersion of nanoparticles, protective surfactant shell and bactericidal properties different methods are used, which have some disadvantages (e.g. The necessity of conducting processes separately, etc.). Preliminary studies have shown a perspective of plasma discharges assisted chemical co-precipitation, In this regard. Thus, it is necessary to further process this method. The main goal of the project is to develop simple, cost-effective, scaleable manufacturing of biocompatible superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4) stabilized with bioactive molecules. For this, we will use controlled plasma discharges generation in liquid, applied during chemical co-precipitation of the precursors, or after synthesis. In the framework of the proposed project we build experimental setup of modernized discharging device and study the influence of the plasma proceses, on the structural, magnetic and optical properties of obtained colloidal dispersions, as well as develop and application focused on their bactericidal effect on the Staphylococcus cell culture." "2017 Young Scientist Research Grant Competition grant # YS17_15 entitled: Synthesis of bio-applicable magnetic nanofluid using plasma generation in liquid. The main goal of the project was simple, inexpensive and large-scale production of bio-applicable iron oxide nanoparticles using plasma discharges in liquid. The solution to the problem involved the improvement of the existing method, specifically the use of in situ controlled plasma discharges during the synthesis process or after synthesis, in order to better disperse the formed nanoparticles on the initial phase and prevent the formation of agglomerates, at the same time treating their surface (static stabilization, generation of H, OH and other radicals during the discharge in the zone) until acquiring better adsorption and bactericidal ability, which is important for bio-use. After that, it would be relatively easy to stabilize the obtained monodisperse nanoparticles with bioactive molecules. It was planned to modernize the plasma discharge unit (electro-hydraulic unit), which meant designing a new design of the unit and equipping it with various monitoring devices. Also, we studied the influence of plasma processes during synthesis and the difference in the effect of plasma treatment after synthesis to obtain better properties of magnetic nanoparticles coated with biologically active substances. Also, we investigated the bactericidal effect of the obtained liquids on the sterile culture of staphylococcus and studied the physico-chemical properties of the obtained samples." "As a result of the implementation of the project, we equipped the electrohydraulic device with current and voltage sensors, pressure and temperature control devices, after that we calculated and controlled the power of the device, selected different modes of liquid processing. In addition, we developed optimized parameters for chemical co-precipitation synthesis (temperature, rotation number, ratio of reagents, etc.), which gave us a reproducible synthesis with a nanoparticle size distribution of 10-30 nm. The role of plasma discharges to cover nanoparticles with biological molecules was highlighted on the samples of folic acid and citric acid, while little effect was observed on other biomolecules (dextran, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, etc.). The bactericidal effect of the obtained liquids on the grown cell culture of Staphylococcus aureus was unnoticeable, while we obtained a relatively better bactericidal effect on Staphylococcus epidermidis, in our opinion, additional further research is needed at different stages of growth of Staphylococcus aureus with higher concentration of nanoparticles. During the study of physico-chemical properties, the effect of electrohydraulic treatment on the change in pH of the liquid was revealed, which confirmed the course of chemical and physical events taking place in the liquid. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering determined the stabilization and stability of the obtained samples. From the magnetic characteristics, it was determined that the nanoparticles in the received liquid are distinguished by superparamagnetic properties, zero magnetization in the zero field indicated a single-domain system. X-ray diffraction and small-angle scattering determined that the obtained samples contain a magnetite core, and the average value of the size distribution for the samples coated with folic acid treated with electrohydraulic high currents was 15 nm. The obtained results were reported at an internal university seminar, at international conferences in Georgia and abroad. A scientific article has been published in the Journal of the Chemical Society of Serbia (Scopus citation index 1.5)."
#20192124Investigation of the effect of pulsed arc discharges on the surface modification of biologically applicable magnetic nanoparticlesCERIC_ERICCentral European Research infrastructure Consortium (CERIC)1100 EURO30-08-2019 - 30.08.2020V.Mikelashvili Sh. Kekutia, J. Markhulia, M. Bogar "The main goal of the project is to develop and characterize a simple, cost-effective and reproducible manufacturing of bio-applicable iron oxide nanoparticles using electrohydraulic discharges in solution. To achieve this goal, we need: • Synthesize nanocolloids containing iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) by in-situ co-precipitation and ultrasonication in a vacuum environment; • Process the surface of magnetite nanoparticles high voltage discharges in an aqueous system using a pulsed direct current (pulsed DC) in different process modes; • after processing modify/stabilize nanoparticle surface by biomaterials such as Citric acid (CA), Folic acid (FA), Dextran and Ascorbic acid (C- vitamine) • Study the effect of electrohydraulic processing as on bare (nanoparticle shape, size, dispersion, etc.) also on covered/ modified bio-applicable nanoparticles (molecular coating efficiency, adsorption properties, morphology, size distribution, character of the possible particle aggregation, etc.). Study will be performed as by conventional technique such as XRD, VSM, and FT IR also by supporting CERIC in the large scale infrastructures. We will investigate the bactericidal effect of best samples also in Georgia. " "We developed a controlled chemical co-precipitation technique using in-situ co-precipitation and ultrasonication in a vacuum environment (Fig.1) to obtain superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). Based on the results of preliminary studies, for the improvement of dispersion of the solution and other characteristics we use the electrohydraulic effect. The electrohydraulic device with controlled parameters (current, voltage) Allow us to process nanofluids in two pulsed discharge mode: 1. High current (HC) mode (referred as HYDC or HYDHC) – the distance between rods 2 mm, discharge current: several tens of Amperes, discharge voltage 1.3 kV, pulse frequency: 2 discharge in seconds, pulse duration: 10-20 msec; 2. Low current (LC) mode (referred as HYDV or HYDLC) - the distance between rods 5 mm, discharge current: several Amperes, discharge voltage 1.3 kV, pulse frequency: 2 discharge in seconds pulse duration 10-20 msec. After electrohydraulic processing, we modified the samples by Citric Acid (CA), Folic Acid (FA) and Dextran (DEX) (samples named SPIONs-HYDC-FA or SPIONs – HYDV-FA, et" "A simple, inexpensive, and large-scale production technology of iron oxide nanoparticles of biomedical use using non-thermal plasma discharges in water (electrohydraulic discharges) has been developed. Electrohydraulic discharges gave a positive effect on the modification of magnetic nanoparticles with bioactive molecules such as Citric acid and Folic acid. All the samples modified/stabilized by bioactive molecules have increased zeta potential (thus increased stability of colloidal dispersions) comparing modified without this method. From the Small-angle X-Ray Scattering pattern, we evaluate the maximum radius of the particles, which not exceeded 26 nm. For the size distribution of all samples, the dominant mean radius was 11-13 nm, although other sizes are represented to a small extent. The next step would be interesting in situ characterization of the synthesis to play with parameters to obtain the samples with different size distribution."
AR-19-1211Synthesis of the multifunctional magnetic nanosystem with innovative technology for medical applicationApplied Research GrantShota Rustaveli national science foundation of Georgia419730 ლარი23.12.2019-23.12.2022Sh. Kekutia J. Markhulia, V. Mikelashvili, L. Saneblidze Current
FR/451/7-230/13The Synthesis of PEG-modified Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and the Study of their Bactericidal Effects on Staphylococcus epidermidisBasic Research GrantShota Rustaveli national science foundation of Georgia149650 ლარი01.04.2014 -01.04.2017M. Abuladze Sh.Kekutia, L.Saneblidze, V.Sokhadze, E.Namchevadze, L.Tabatadze, G.Tvauri, V.Mikelashvili, J.Markhulia Biocompatible 10-20 nm sized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have been synthesized via co-precipitation method in the vacuum environment. These nanoparticles have been modified with PEG in one-pot synthesis. Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) studies show the effect of phase transformations on the magnetic properties of the nanoparticles and surfactant influence on the characteristics of the magnetization at room temperatures into high and low magnetic fields. The obtained PEG-coated nanoparticles were tested for bacteriocidal effects on Staphylococcus epidermides, known as slime producing and biofilm-forming bacteria, often associated with chronic wounds. The toxicity of the compound was estimated by the colony forming ability and analyzed by the differential scanning calorymetry. The detected bactericidal effect was time- and growth phase-dependent. Staphylococcus epidermides planctonic cell culture at the lag–phase was the most susceptible to the toxic action. The long-term impact of the magnetic nanoparticles ceased the slime production that could have influence on the ability of St. epidermides to form biofilm. The outcomes of this study will further lead to the possible application of SPIONs for human chronic wound healing. "Wound healing is a complex process with many potential factors that can delay healing. The reasons why wounds fail to heal are varied and complex. Prospect of increased numbers of chronic wounds in ageing populations is a major concern There is increasing evidence that bacteria within chronic wounds often live in communities called biofilms, in which they are protected from host defenses and develop resistance to the treatment with antibiotics. The usual mode of existence of bacteria in chronic colonization of moist surfaces, is not in free-living planktonic state, but also in biofilms. A biofilm has been defined as “a structured community of bacterial cells enclosed in a self-produced polymeric matrix, mostly consisting of polysaccharides and adherent to an inert or living surface”. Establishing an association between chronic wound and the presence of biofilm has been an important advance in knowledge that has generated much interest and speculations within the wound healing arena. A biofilm serves to promote bacteria persistence by resisting antibiotic treatment and host immune responses. Antibiotics are rendered ineffective when biofilms form due to their relative impermeability, the variable physiological status of microorganisms, subpopulations of persistent strains, and variations of phenotypes present. A possible approach for biofilms prevention might be application of nanotechnology. Therefore SPIONs could have a dual therapeutic function which can enhance bone growth and inhibit bacterial infection. Based on these observations a dual mechanism of bactericidal effect induced by SPIONs was proposed. Antimicrobial activity of SPIONs was associated with generation of reactive oxygen species (ROSes), by Fe3O4 nanoparticles or the small size of nanoparticles can also contribute to bactericidal effects or the penetration of the small particles (size ranging 10–80 nm) into E. coli membranes. Hence, considering possible application of SPIONs for wound healing, in this application we assesed bactericidal effect of SPIONs on Staphylococcus epidermidis – a biofilm-forming bacteria, combined with the study of SPIONs effect on human epithelial-like cell line – L-41. " "The magnetic properties of the nanoparticles were determined in order to evaluate the potential of using polymer coated SPIONs for medical purposes. The resulting hysteresis image showed the superparamagnetic behavior of magnetic nanoparticles. Thus, Spion synthesis and magnetization measurements (four types of nanoparticles) were carried out. The growth characteristics of S.epidermidis and the biofilms were determined. Comparison of the thermal stability of S. epidermidis is carried out at different growth stage of planctonic culture and biofilms using DSC. Concentration and time-dependent toxicity of different types of SPIONs on S. epidermidis are evaluated by MTT assay, CFU, OD measurements. The study of the time and concentration dependence of the effects of different types of SPIONs on different growth stages of planktonic culture and on biofilms S. epidermidis (using differential scanning colorimetry) is carried out. The concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect of SPIONs on the L-41 cell line was evaluated at several time points using the microculture MTT assay and microscopic analysis. The concentration-dependent effect of SPIONs on cell cycle progression of L-41 cells was evaluated by measuring the DNA content for the cell cycle. The viability of L-41 cells treated with different concentrations of SPIONs was studied according to free radical generation by flow cytometry using 2'-7'dichlorofluoroscein diacetate (DCFH-DA). "
AR/96/3-250/13Continuous production line for synthesis of modified magnetic nanoparticles Applied Science grantShota Rustaveli national science foundation of Georgia199800 ლარი04.04.2014 -04.04.2016.Shalva Kekutia J. Markhulia, V. Mikelashvili, L. Saneblidze "Nanoparticles (nanoparticles) are very small structures (depending on the application, their size varies from 1 to 100 nm), which can be made from an inorganic or organic material and whose properties differ significantly from those of a bulk material. In the last decade, studies of several types of iron oxide have been significantly intensified, among which magnetite (Fe3O4) is a very popular and promising candidate, since its biocompatibility has already been substantiated. There is a technological problem of controlling the size, shape, stability and dispersibility of nanoparticles in the suitable solvents. Thus, providing the surface with an appropriate coating and clarification some effective strategies to protect the stability of the MNPs is very important, which was the goal of our project. Thus, our goal was to focus on the clarification and synthesis strategy, structure, and various surface-functionalized magnetic properties of MNPs, as well as their respective applications. In particular, functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized by the chemical method and the electrohydraulic effect were studied. Thus, our goal was to focus on the synthesis, structure, and strategy of various surface-functionalized magnetic properties of MNPs and their respective applications. In particular, functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized by a chemical method and treated with an electrohydraulic effect were studied. But the main theme of this project was the creation of a continuous technological line for the production of magnetic nanofluids coated with various polymers with high magnetic medical properties, which was successfully implemented. " "In the last decades, much research has been developed to the synthesis of iron oxide NPs, and many reports have described efficient synthesis approaches to produce the shape controlled, stable, biocompatible, and monodispersed iron oxide NPs. Although most studies have focused on the development of small organic molecules and surfactants coating up to now, recently polymers functionalized iron oxide NPs are receiving more and more attention, owing to the advantages of polymers coating will increase repulsive forces to balance the magnetic and the van der Waals attractive forces acting on the NPs. In addition, polymers coating on the surface of iron oxide NPs offer a high potential in the application of several fields. Moreover, polymer functionalized iron oxide NPs have been extensively investigated due to interest in their unique physical or chemical properties. To make use of these materials for fundamental or applied research, access to well-defined NPs samples whose properties can be ‘‘tuned’’ through chemical modification is necessary. In a number of cases it has now been shown that, through careful choice of the passivating and activating polymers and/or reaction conditions, can produce NPs with tailored and desired properties. The saturation magnetization value of iron oxide NPs will decrease after polymers functionalization. The most conventional method for obtaining Fe3O4 NPs is by co-precipitation. But this method needs to be improved in order to rise monodispersity, that is necessary in the case of biomedical applications. To do this, we for the first time turn on the electrohydraulic effect (Yutkin effect) in a well-known scheme for the treatment (synthesis) of nanoparticles in order to significantly reduce radius dispersion of nanoparticles. The proposed approach, as shown by experiments, significantly improves the dispersion of solution. We obtained the stable magnetic colloid prepared by an adapted co-precipitation method in the presence of electrohydraulic effect, with further magnetite stabilization by polymer. The samples were analyzed by VSM at room temperature to find the saturation magnetization of various polymer (PVA, PEG, Dextran) coated iron oxide NPs. But the main objective of this project was to develop continuous technology line (CTL) for obtaining magnetic nanofluids on the basis of various polymers with high medical properties, the main feature of which is reproducibility. With this device it is possible to run experiments automatically – safely, reproducibly and around the clock. With the CTL, the scientist can achieve high accuracy and reproducibility of the experiments. With creation of CTL synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles were free up from complex task of monitoring responsibilities and routine work that finally became a thing of the past. " "The task of this project was to elaborate new technology of synthesis polymer coated SPIONs, by application of electrohydraulic effect. To achieve this goal it was necessary to solve the following tasks: — Elaboration of the technology of synthesis PVA, PEG and Dextran-coated SPIONs, using electrohydraulic dispergation method; — Improvement of the electrohydraulic dispergation method and creating the appropriate device. — The measurement of the magnetization of the synthesized functional magnetic nanoparticles. These tasks were successfully completed. The main goal of the project was the create of a continuous technological line (CTL) for receiving magnetic fluids coated by various polymers with high magnetic-medical properties, that is, the construction of an automatic chemical reactor, its order with the manufacturer, which was successfully implemented. With this device it is possible to run experiments automatically – safely, reproducibly and around the clock. With the CTL, the scientist can achieve high accuracy and reproducibility of the experiments. With creation of CTL synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles will free up from complex task of monitoring responsibilities and routine work that finally became a thing of the past. The main advantages of CTL: — Outstanding reproducibility. "
GNSF/ST06/4-019 Some issues of the propagation of collective modes in the superfluid-porous medium systemBasic Research GrantShota Rustaveli national science foundation of Georgia53000 ლარი21.11.2006-21.05.2009Shalva Kekutia Nikoloz Chkhaidze "The presented project is devoted to the study of the properties of porous medium filled with superfluid helium, which are among the remarkable examples of artificially created objects. They have a number of special and very characteristic properties that are widely used in various fields. In this regard, it was necessary to extend Biot's theory to a porous medium filled with superfluid helium. In particular, we (Sh. Kekutia, N. Chkhaidze) studied the theory of deformation of a porous elastic solid filled with superfluid HeII and superfluid He3-He4 solution, which is a novelty, unique and different from all similar studies when the Biot theory is used. This approach made it possible to study in more detail the properties of a porous medium due to the derivation of the equations of motion of a superfluid liquid–porous medium. These equations describe all possible sound waves. Accordingly, the project calculates the velocities of longitudinal and transverse waves for different ratios of elasticity coefficients in the range of high and low frequencies. " "Typical examples of artificially created objects are clusters, quantum dots, nanoparticles, endohedral structures, high-temperature superconductors, aerogels, and etc. This situation can be characterized as a transition from the analysis of physical objects to their synthesis, which, undoubtedly, can be considered as an indicator of the qualitative development of scientific and technical areas. The system proposed in the project provides a unique opportunity to probe a porous medium with superfluid helium or to study the properties of superfluid helium in porous nanostructures. Based on the exact theory developed within the framework of the project, the study of the acoustic properties of the porous solid-superfluid liquid system is an innovation that is unique and different from all similar studies using the Biot theory, which is not suitable for superfluid helium. Rich and complete information about the properties of such systems can be obtained on the basis of an analysis of the propagation of oscillations in these systems. In particular, a rapidly developing area is the study of sound propagation in nanostructured substances filled with superfluid helium. There were several main approaches to the study of sound propagation in a physical system superfluid helium-porous medium. In one of the first cases, a porous absolutely rigid body was filled with superfluid helium, i.e. the solid body did not participate at all in the oscillatory motion of the fluid. The second direction refers to the last decade and was created thanks to experiments that were carried out with an easy movement in a porous medium - aerogel. The third direction refers to the works of Biot, devoted to a partially fluctuating porous medium filled by a classical fluid. Biot's theory predicted two longitudinal and one transverse volume propagating waves. These waves represent the solution of two interdependent differential equations describing the motion of a two-component system. At the same time, the nanostructured porous medium-superfluid helium system mentioned above has not been fully studied. Therefore, in this project, we proposed and successfully implemented an acoustic method to determine the structure of these systems. The study belongs to the category of scientific and fundamental. Thus, we have obtained the equations of motion of a superfluid liquid (superfluid solution He3-He4 and superfluid HeII)-porous medium, describing all possible propagating sounds. " "Dispersion equations for propagating longitudinal waves are established for the system porous medium-superfluid He3-He4 solutions. Accordingly, a general dispersion equation is obtained for studying longitudinal waves. The velocities of the second sound and propagating waves are calculated for the unconsolidated case in the system porous medium-superfluid solution He3-He4, that is, the velocities of propagating waves are calculated for Kb=N=0. The wave propagation velocities in a rigid porous medium filled with a superfluid solution He3-He4 are also calculated. In particular, the dependence of the transverse wave velocity on tortuosity (Kf << Kb, N << Ks) was studied. The velocities of fast and slow waves are calculated in the low-frequency limit in the system porous medium-superfluid solution He3-He4. The equations of motion of an aerogel-superfluid He3 system placed in a strong magnetic field are determined, and the velocities of fast and slow sounds are calculated. A relationship is found between the oscillating quantities of fast and slow sounds (pressure, temperature, airgel density) for the aerogel-superfluid He3 system. The absorption coefficients of transverse waves in the porous medium-superfluid He4 system are calculated in the low- and high-frequency limits. The dependence of dynamic permeability and tortuosity, as well as the dissipation function on the parameters α_∞, k_0, φ, ζ is determined. The equations of motion of HeII in an absolutely rigid porous medium are derived, the absorption coefficients and sound propagation velocities are calculated, and their dependence on the slip length is determined. "
20177016Complex study of the structure and morphology of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications obtained by new controllable techniquCERIC-ERIC (Central European Research Infrastructure) CERIC-ERIC - coordinated access to instruments and support laboratoriesCERIC-ERIC კონსორციუმი20/11/2017-20/11/2019Jano MarkhuliaJ.Markhulia; V.Mikelashvili "The goal of the research is to characterize the iron oxide ferrofluid prepared by controlled chemical co-precipitation at the different stages of synthesis, i.e., after preparation, after electrohydraulic treatment, and after their coating; Determination of the effect of electrohydraulic treatment on the physicochemical characteristics of iron oxide ferrofluid stabilized with various surfactants (oleic acid, PEG-oleate). For this purpose, it is necessary to determine size distribution, morphological characteristics, and structural and element composition of iron oxide ferrofluids (before and after processing with an electrohydraulic discharge) using a combination of high precision various research methods such as Transmission electron microscopy- TEM, Dynamic light scattering- DLS, Small Angle X-ray scattering - SAXS, small angle neutron scattering - SANS, Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis -PGAA." "Currently, the urgent task is to synthesize iron oxide nanoparticles with the desired physicochemical characteristics, obtain biocompatible functional materials based on them, and study their properties. The main technological challenges of the synthesis of biomedical magnetic nanoparticles are the precise control of size, shape, size distribution, and stability of NPs in the dispersion medium. The aim of this research was to obtain water-based nanofluids containing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) modified with various organic molecules (citric acid (CA), folic acid (Fa), oleic acid (OA) and poly (ethylene glycol) monooleate (PEGMO) - with molecular weights of 460 and 860) using a modified controlled chemical coprecipitation reaction (in an automated chemical reactor with the choice of optimal synthesis conditions), as well as stable nanofluids containing bare iron oxide nanoparticles (BIONs) in an aqueous medium at normal pH (close to physiological) and study their physical-chemical characteristics. Individual samples (shuch as citric acid, and folic acid stabilized magnetic fluids (CA-SPIONs, FA-SPIONs)) of the obtained magnetic nanofluid were processed by electro-hydraulic discharge (These samples were labeled as CA-SPIONs-EHD, FA-SPIONs-EHD) to improve homogeneity as well as sorption properties. For this purpose, it is necessary to determine the size distribution, morphological characteristics, and structural and element composition of iron oxide ferrofluids using a combination of high-precision various research methods such as Transmission electron microscopy – TEM, Dynamic light scattering- DLS, Small Angle X-ray scattering – SAXS, small angle neutron scattering – SANS. In the framework of this project, we prepared the above-mentioned samples which, according to the project plan, measurements were made by SAXS and DLS at the Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Graz University of Technology, soft Matter Application Lab (Graz, Austria), Budapest Neutron Centre (Budapest, Hungary). We couldn’t use TEM because there was no time allocated for this instrument." "In this study, we successfully synthesized magnetic nanofluids based on magnetite nanoparticles, both without modification (BIONs) and with oleic acid, citric acid, folic acid, and PEG monooleate stabilization, by modifying the standard procedure chemical coprecipitation synthesis in an automated chemical reactor. This path (with the established optimal parameters) is an easy, reproducible, scalable, and effective strategy for obtaining functionalized magnetic nanoparticles. wherein, the obtained water-based magnetic nanofluids (close to physiological pH) containing naked magnetite nanoparticles retain sedimentation stability due to electrostatic stabilization. Such magnetic nanofluids can be used for biomedical purposes where high magnetization is required at a neutral or physiological pH of an aqueous medium. Due to their good solubility in water, biocompatibility, and the presence of functional groups, the obtained magnetic nanofluids modified with biocompatible organic molecules such as citric acid, oleic acid, folic acid, as well as PEG derivatives (PEGMO), can be additionally functionalized with biomolecules or drugs which gives promising prospects for their application in biomedicine. As a result of processing and analysis of experimental data (as well as based on physical measurements performed using other research methods), two scientific articles were written and published (as well as participated in a scientific conference )"
საგრანტო ხელშეკრულება № CARYS-19-976Evaluation of therapeutic effect of magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with antitumor drug on breast cancer cellsApplied Research Grant (CARYS)Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia (SRNSFG)249420 ლარი30.07.2020წ–30.07.2021წJano Markhulia "1)Jano Markhulia,2)Shalva Kekutia, 3) Liana Saneblidze; 4) Tsertsvadze Tamar, 5) Maisuradze Nino, 7) Leladze Nino. Vladimer Mikelashvili, "The scientific research planned for the grant project focuses on the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with an anti-cancer drug, obtained using controlled chemical co- coprecipitation method, also in vitro study of the therapeutic effect of the resulting nanosystems on cancer cells. Specifically, using an automatic chemical reactor, reproducible magnetite nanoparticles coated with citric acid will be synthesized, as well as loaded with an anti-cancer drug, followed by studying the effect of the obtained magnetic nanosystems on the viability of human and mouse breast cancer cells. We will study the crystal structure and phase composition, sizes, size distribution, colloidal stability (zeta potential), optical magnetic characteristics of nanosystems containing nanoparticles of superparamagnetic iron oxide (magnetite) (including magnetic nanoparticles modified with organic acid and loaded with doxorubicin) synthesized by us. We will also study the therapeutic effects (drug metabolism, cell viability, and activity) of biomedical magnetic nanosystems on human and mouse breast cancer cell cultures (MDA-MB-468 and 4T1) in vitro models. In case of fulfilling the planned tasks, we will have a biocompatible reproducible magnetic nanosystem functionalized with an anti-cancer drug, with predetermined physicochemical, pharmacokinetic characteristics, designed to improve cancer therapy (dose reduction of a chemotherapeutic drug, thereby reducing side effects). This study will provide a solid basis for studying the animal model of the aforementioned magnetic nanosystem in in-vivo. At the same time, research and results will contribute to the production and commercialization of theranostic nanosystems based on magnetic nanoparticles in our region." The scientific research carried out within the framework of the grant project focused on the synthesis of citric acid-modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (CA-SPIONs) loaded with anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) (DOX-CA-SPIONs), using controlled sonochemical co-precipitation method and study in vitro cytotoxicity of obtained magnetic nanofluids (containing unmodified/uncovered SPIONs (Bare-SPIONs), CA-SPIONs and DOX-CA-SPIONs) on the triple-negative breast cancer (MB-468) and mouse breast cancer cell (4T1) lines. Loading of doxorubicin as an antitumor agent on the surface of the nanoparticles was carried out by electrostatic interaction. Some samples of the synthesized magnetic nanofluid were processed by electrohydraulic discharges to improve homogeneity as well as sorption properties. Physico-chemical characteristics of the obtained samples were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms spectroscopy (FTIR), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), visible and ultraviolet spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic Light Scattering (ELS), Raman spectroscopy. To properly analyze and assess cytotoxicity and viability of breast cancer cell lines after administering the antitumor drug DOX, as well as Bare-SPION, CA-SPION, and DOX-CA-SPION magnetic nanosystems, we used the MTT method, the optical density of which was measured on an Elisa reader at a wavelength of 570 nm. In vitro biological studies have shown that the cytotoxicity of the samples was specific and dose-dependent. In addition, the DOX-CA-SPIONs magnetic nanosystem exhibits a synergistic effect in inhibiting the growth of breast tumor cells compared to free doxorubicin. Based on the performed physico-chemical and in vitro studies, it can be said that the pathway of synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles, its modification with citric acid, and subsequent loading with doxorubicin, according to the established optimal parameters, is an efficient, reproducible, scalable, and cost-effective strategy for the preparation doxorubicin functionalized magnetic nanosystems. At the same time, the synergistic effect of inhibiting the growth and proliferation of cancer cells (compared to doxorubicin) in in vitro studies, demonstrated by the combination of the drug plus magnetic nanosystem, opens up promising prospects for using this nanoparticle-mediated combination, for targeted drug delivery and dose optimization, which will reduce the dose-dependent side effects of doxorubicin and enhance the cytotoxic effect on cancer cells in tumor therapy. It should be noted that scientific research is interdisciplinary in nature with the participation of physicists, chemists, and biomedical scientists. In the future, the plan of the research group participating in the grant is to expand complex research and study the antitumor therapeutic effect of multifunctional magnetic nanosystems in in-vivo animal models. In addition, in order to expand interagency cooperation during the grant period, we had a connection with the biomedical segment working on nanosystems based on magnetic nanoparticles, both locally and in the Caucasus region.Interest and readiness to cooperate with several medical research institutions in Georgia were expressed in order to assess the performance of preclinical studies of magnetic nanoparticles modified with bioactive substances and functionalized with therapeutic agents, with the prospect of further joint research. Within the framework of this grant project, we have successfully synthesized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by sonochemical co-precipitation using an automated chemical reactor; 2) we modified the resulting nanofluid (containing bare iron oxide nanoparticles) with biocompatible organic molecules - citric acid, and then loaded this nanosystem with an anticancer drug - doxorubicin; 3) The physicochemical characteristics of the synthesized samples were studied. Water-based magnetic nanofluids (with pH close to physiological) containing bare, as well as modified with citric acid and loaded with doxorubicin magnetite nanoparticles (processed with and without electrohydraulic charging), retain colloidal stability and exhibit high magnetic properties. Such magnetic nanofluids can be used in biomedical applications where biocompatibility, stability, and high magnetization in physiological media are required. This method of synthesizing iron oxide nanoparticles, modifying them with citric acid, and then loading them with doxorubicin (according to optimal parameters) is an efficient, reproducible, scalable, and cost-effective strategy for obtaining a doxorubicin-functionalized magnetic nanosystem; 4) At the same time, in vitro studies have shown a synergistic effect in inhibiting the growth and proliferation of cancer cells, which was revealed by the combination of doxorubicin plus magnetic nanoparticles (compared to the antitumor drug doxorubicin), which provides promising prospects for using this combined nanosystem as targeted drug delivery, and to optimize the dose, which, in turn, will reduce the dose-dependent side effects of doxorubicin and enhance the cytotoxic effect in cancer therapy.
საგრანტო ხელშეკრულება № FR/395/6-420/13New Type Spiropyrans Combined with the Azi Dyes with Extended Properties.Competition of state scientific grants for fundamental researchShota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia109 650 ლარი31.03.2014 - 01.10.2016Jimsher Maisuradze "S. Akhobadze, I. Mzhavanadze, Z Urchukhishvili," We have performed the synthesis of compounds containing two photochromic hybrid centers, which is a new direction and is the basis for the synthesis of this type of substance. Compounds of this type can be successfully applied in all areas of technology where other photochromic compounds are usable "Spiropyrans (spirochromenes) are an important class of organic photochromic compounds. Bistable molecules and molecular ensembles can exist in two thermodynamically stable states. Switching from one to another occurs when exposed to stimuli (light, heat, mechanical stress, electric and magnetic fields, etc.). Bulky spiropyran molecule When exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light, it converts to a coplanar, colored merocyanine form with a high dipole moment. Our goal is to obtain hybrid compounds containing two different types of photochromic centers, namely, compounds containing spiropyran and an azo dye, the implementation of which consists in attaching the spiropyran molecule to the oxygen atom of the chromium part in the para position with the benzene ring containing various substituents through the azo group (- N=N-). The mutual conversion of the spiropyran (non-induced) and merocyanine (induced) forms of the obtained compound can be schematically represented as follows: where R and R1 in different positions in different combinations represent -H; -OH; -OSN3; -Br; -NO2. The objectives of the project are: Synthesis of 1,2,3,3-tetramethylindolenine iodide and 1-butyl-2,3,3-trimethylindolenine iodide and their spiropyran derivatives. Synthesis of 1-tetradecyl-2,3,3-trimethyleneindolenine iodide and 1-octadecyl-2,3,3-trimethyleneindolenine iodide and their spiropyran derivatives. Synthesis of 1,7-propane-2,3,3-trimethylindolenine iodide and spiropyran derivatives. Synthesis of 1,2,3,4-tetramethyl-4-azaindolenine iodide and spiropyran derivatives. Study of the physicochemical characteristics of the resulting spiropyrans (melting point, solubility, etc.). " "As a result of the interaction of conjugated hydroxy aromatic aldehydes and quaternary indoline salts, new types of spiropyrans were synthesized in combination with azo dyes, which are hybrid compounds with two photochromic centers. Solutions of synthesized spiropyrans contain two absorption bands, one of which corresponds to the azo group, and the other to spiropyran. As we expected, the absorption maximum of spiropyran is bathochromically shifted by 20–100 nm compared to the reference compounds. The exception is 1,7-propane-2-methylene-3,3-dimethylindolene spiropyrans, whose bathochromic shift is 10 nm. This is due to the inclusion of a cyclic fragment in the molecule, which prevents the alignment of the conjugated chain in one plane. The bathochromic shift of the absorption spectrum indicates the presence of a conjugated chain. Their photochromic properties are manifested both at low and room temperatures. The combination of the electron cloud of both photochromic fragments - spiropyran and azobenzene in all the studied compounds is indicated by the fact that the photoinduction of the spiropyran fragment from thermodynamic equilibrium is synchronously accompanied by the reaction of the azobenzene fragment. Azo-conjugated hydroxy aromatic aldehydes, obtained by the developed method, can later be used to obtain other types of spirocyclic compounds. The obtained hybrid spiropyrans containing two photochromic centers can be simultaneously used as two-wave switches. This project opens up opportunities for obtaining new polyfunctional hybrid photochromic substances. "
GNSF/STO8/4-425Spiropyrans Containing Systems for Photochemical Memory Elements2009 State Scientific Grant Grant CompetitionGeorgian National Science Foundation90 000 ლარი01.03.2009-28.02.2011Kokhta Japaridze Ts. Zurabishvili, J. Maisuradze, L. Devadze, N. Sepashvili, M. Katsiashvili Qualitatively new, spiropyran-doped nematochiral liquid crystal polymer films with photochemical stability, characterized by high photosensitivity and intense reflectivity, have been obtained. The application of the obtained polymer films is promising for creating elements of photochemical memory of a three-dimensional molecular computer, which will make it possible to write and read information without loss. "The fabrication of a phototunable system that can reliably write and read optical information without loss is based on the prospect of using the photochromic liquid crystal compositions developed by the authors doped with spiropyran and the created polymer material. based on them. The project aims to create a three-dimensional molecular element of computer memory. The main objectives of the project are: Preparation of liquid crystal systems containing cholesterol esters in various temperature ranges. Study of the optical characteristics of the obtained systems. Production of polymer films based on liquid crystal compositions using microencapsulation technology. Study of the spectral characteristics and photochemical stability of the obtained films. Synthesis of aldehydes and bases required for spiropyrans. Synthesis of spiropyrans containing С14Н29-, С18Н37- radicals obtained by condensation of aldehydes and bases with a nitrogen atom. Determination of thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics of cholesteric liquid crystal compositions doped with spiropyrans. Obtaining polymer films based on liquid crystal compositions doped with spiropyran by microencapsulation and studying the spectral characteristics and photochemical stability of the obtained films. Preparation of nemato-chiral compositions by selecting the ratio of nematic liquid crystal substances and various optically active additives. Study of the optical characteristics of the resulting compositions. Obtaining nemato-chiral polymer films by an improved microencapsulation method and studying the spectral characteristics of the obtained films. Determination of thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics of nemato-chiral compositions doped with spiropyran. Preparation of polymer films based on the obtained compositions using the technology of the microencapsulation method. Determination of the ability to write and read information without loss in films of cholesteric and nematochiral liquid crystal polymers doped with spiropyran. " "Liquid-crystal systems containing cholesterol esters with a given temperature range have been obtained. Optical studies have shown that the resulting compositions are characterized by effective color contrast characteristics. Based on these compositions, polymeric films were produced using the microencapsulation process. Technologically advanced elastic homogeneous films with a flat surface are obtained. Polymer films are distinguished by high color contrast characteristics and increased photochemical stability compared to compositions. Aldehydes and bases necessary for the production of spiropyrans have been synthesized. Spiropyrans containing C14H29-, and C18H37- radicals with a nitrogen atom are obtained by condensation of aldehydes and bases. When studying the thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics of cholesteric liquid crystal compositions doped with spiropyran, the high absorption-photosensitivity and intense reflectivity of the compositions were determined. Based on liquid-crystal compositions doped with spiropyran, polymer films were obtained by microencapsulation. The study of the spectral characteristics and photochemical stability showed that the resulting films have higher photochemical stability compared to the composites, as well as absorbing and scattering abilities. By selecting the ratio of nematic liquid crystal substances and various optically active additives, nemato-chiral compositions are obtained. Compositions with high reflectivity in the desired optical range have been obtained. Photochemically stable nemato-chiral polymer films with high color contrast characteristics were obtained by an improved microencapsulation method. The thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics of nematochiral compositions doped with spiropyran have been determined. Based on the obtained compositions, polymeric films were made using the technology of the microencapsulation method. Qualitatively new, spiropyran-doped nematochiral liquid crystal polymer films with photochemical stability, characterized by high photosensitivity and intense reflectivity, have been obtained. The application of the obtained polymer films is promising for creating elements of photochemical memory of a three-dimensional molecular computer, which will make it possible to write and read information without loss. "
N-114 Nanostructured Liquid-Crystal Polymer Films for Advanced Systems Information RecordingGeorgian Technical University 2011Georgian Technical University11 000 ლარი06/05/2011-31/12/2011K. JaparidzeGia Petriashvili, Lali Devadze, Tsisana Zurabishvil, Jimsher Maisuradze Izolda Mzhavanadze, Mzia Gugava, Davit Oniani As a result of solving the tasks set in the project, thermosensitive and nanostructured polymer films of LC were obtained as modern polyfunctional materials for information reflection with improved parameters, promising for use in modern fields of information reflection to create devices such as thermal field visualizers; optical systems for receiving, processing and storing information; UV sensors; Photoluminescent displays. The essence and relevance of the project is related to the formation of nanostructures in liquid crystals. By placing photochromic molecules and liquid crystals (LC) in one system, it is possible to synergistically combine the properties of their structures. The resulting new photochromic system LC is characterized by unique thermal, photooptical, electrooptical, and mechanical properties. The material obtained by integrating such a system with a polymer will make important the prospect of using photochromic LC systems to create a new type of photo-optically controlled information display devices that will visualize, convert and process thermal and optical images. The LC photochromic system is a composition containing photochromic spiropyran dissolved in the LC cholesteric matrix. In cholesteric LC systems, nematochiral mixtures obtained by inducing LC with an optically active additive are characterized by chemical and photochemical stability. In a photochromic system of LC doped with spiropyran, it is possible to control photoinduction processes, as well as the structure and properties of LC by exposing them to ultraviolet (UV) light. The main objectives of the project are: a) Obtaining cholesteric liquid crystal compositions with an induced helix and studying their thermo-optical properties; b) Doping of nanostructures with different properties into cholesteric liquid crystals, namely photochromic spiropyrans, and studying the physicochemical properties of the resulting nanocomposite mixtures; c) Fabrication of thermosensitive and nanostructured liquid-crystal polymer films based on these compositions and study of their thermo-, photo-optical properties and technological characteristics. d) Preparation of flexible luminescent displays based on liquid crystal polymer films. The purpose of the project is to obtain by the authors a new type of multifunctional thermosensitive and nanostructured polymer films LC, which will make it relevant to create polymeric materials based on them, the use of which is promising in modern fields of informatization. reflections to create devices such as: 1) Visualizers of thermal fields and infrared images; 2) Ultraviolet radiation sensors, optical systems for receiving, processing and storing information; 3) New generation photoluminescent displays. " 1) Mixtures of induced helical nematochiral LCs were prepared; As a result of thermooptical studies, it was found that the mixtures obtained are characterized by high color contrast characteristics in the entire range of the visible spectrum, and the long-wave region is especially intense. 2) On the basis of nematochiral mixtures of LC, thermosensitive polymer films of LC were obtained using the innovative microencapsulation method developed by the authors of the technological process. The study of thermo-optical properties and technological characteristics showed that polymer films have improved color contrast characteristics, high light reflectivity, and photochemical stability. Technologically advanced, homogeneous, elastic polymer films of any shape and size, with a smooth surface, are made by the requirements of practical applications. The resulting thermosensitive polymer films of LC can be used as a thermal indicator polymer material for visualizing thermal fields in such areas of thermal indication as medicine, human ecology, electronics, and flaw detection. 3) Nanostructured compositions are obtained by doping photochromic substances with nanosized (light-sensitive optically active additives, spiropyrans), luminescent dyes in nematochiral LC mixtures; Photo-optical studies have established that nanostructured compositions are characterized by high photosensitivity to ultraviolet radiation and the presence of a selective reflection band in the visible spectrum, which indicates its thermochromic properties. 4) Using the technological process of the microencapsulation method, technologically advanced qualitatively new nanostructured polymer films of LC doped with spiropyran were obtained, corresponding to a practical task; Thermo- and photo-optical studies have shown that polymer films are sensitive to temperature and light. The resulting polymer films can be used as a reversible photochromic LC sensor material in reusable dosimeters. 5) By microencapsulation, polymer films doped with luminescent nanoclusters are obtained, based on which flexible luminescent displays can be made.
11/12 შიფრი № FR/349/G430/11A Novel Method to Increase the Photosensitivity of Spiropyran-Containing SystemState competition of scientific grants for 2012 Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia84 000 ლარი 26.03.2012 - 26.03.2014Kokhta Japaridze "Jimsher Maisuradze, Tsisana Zurabishvili, Nino Sepashvili, Mzia Gugava, Z Urchukhishvili" "Using our method for increasing the effective photosensitivity of spiropyrans, a spiropyran-doped nemato-chiral liquid crystal system with improved photosensitivity was created, combining photochromic and thermo-indicative properties. The material obtained by integrating such a system with a polymer will make important the prospect of using photochromic LC systems to create a new type of photo-optically controlled devices that will visualize, transform, and process thermal and optical images. " "Materials containing photochromic spiropyrans are the element base in light-controlled systems, such as molecular computers, variable density filters, dosimeters, and to create other similar systems, the element base must be characterized by high light sensitivity and resolution. The project is relevant, as it meets modern trends in the miniaturization of elements and devices in light-controlled systems and low power consumption. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the fact that, due to the specific structure of the spiropyran molecule, as a result of photoinduction, liquid-crystalline nemato-chiral systems containing spiropyran self-organize into micelles, which increases the effective photosensitivity of the system. Nemato-chiral LCs in such systems can serve not only as a matrix, but also as a thermal indicator. Therefore, such systems are interesting from the point of view that, by combining photochromic and thermally indicative properties, it is possible to create materials that are sensitive to temperature and light, which will increase the area of ​​their use. A completely new type of spiropyrans based on vitamin B6 (pyridoxal) will be synthesized, which has increased photosensitivity and a high dipole moment, which will facilitate the micelle formation process. On the one hand, high photosensitivity, and on the other hand, the formation of micelles will increase the effective photosensitivity of the system. The ultimate aim of the project is to create such LC-polymer ""smart"" materials at the level of laboratory samples with improved photosensitivity compared to known analogues, sensitive to temperature and light and promising for their use in photonics. The main aims of the project are: 1. Obtaining a nemato-chiral liquid crystal matrix by selecting the ratio of components to obtain the required temperature range. Determination of the correlation between the composition of the nemato-chiral matrix of LC and the position of the Bragg reflection band of the visible spectrum using spectral analysis. 2. Production of polymer films based on the obtained nemato-chiral compositions using the technological process of the micro-encapsulation method. Investigation of the optical and spectral characteristics of the resulting tapes. 3. Synthesis of Fischer's base homologues (N-R-2-methylene-3,3-dimethyl-indoline) R=CH3; C2H5; C3H7; C5H11; C14H29; C18H37. 4. Determine the critical micelle concentration by doping the nemato-chiral matrix with spiropyran with a long alkyl radical attached to the nitrogen atom. Optical-chemical study of the resulting compositions. 5. Obtaining polymer films based on a nemato-chiral composition doped with spiropyran by the microcapsule method. Optical-chemical study of the obtained films. 6. Synthesis of 5-nitro-, 3-5-dinitro- and 3-bromo-5-nitrosalicylic aldehydes; Obtaining target spiropyrans (spirochromenes) by condensation of the resulting bases. 7. Study of the effect of changing the ratio of the components of the nemato-chiral matrix on photosensitivity under conditions of the selected concentration of spiropyran. 8. Preparation of polymer films based on the compositions obtained by microencapsulation. Determination of the dependence of photosensitivity on the technological characteristics of films by adjusting the technological stages of microencapsulation (capsule size, film thickness, stretching orientation). Study of the photosensitivity of the obtained films. 9. Taking 6-nitropyridoxal. Synthesis of 4-aza-N-R-2-methylene-3,3-dimethylindolines (R=CH3; C2H5; C14H29). 10. Comparison of the photosensitivity of compositions containing a nematic matrix doped with spiropyran and its helically induced matrix. 11. Comparison of the photosensitivity of polymer films obtained on the basis of compositions. 12. Synthesis of the corresponding spiropyrans - spiro-7-azachromenes based on starting materials. The expected result of the research is the creation of a nematochiral liquid crystal system doped with spiropyran with improved photosensitivity due to an increase in the effective photosensitivity of spiropyrans, combining photochromic and thermo-indicative properties. LC polymer material can be used in light-controlled systems such as recording, memory and information processing systems, nonlinear optical materials, molecular computers, tunable optical density filters, optical switches, various types of sensors in medicine and ecology. The use of materials obtained by us with improved photosensitivity will be promising in medicine and ecology for the creation of sensors that are simultaneously sensitive to temperature and light. Such material can be used in reusable dosimeters that will control the harmful (excessive) dose of ultraviolet radiation for human health, which is important for the prevention of skin cancer.. " "1. A nematochiral liquid crystal matrix is ​​made by selecting the ratio of components in the desired temperature range. A correlation has been established between the composition of the LC nemato-chiral matrix and the position of the Bragg reflection band in the visible spectrum. 2. Polymer films made by the technological process of the microencapsulation method based on nematochiral LC compositions. The optical and spectral characteristics of the films obtained have been studied. 3. The following homologues of Fischer's base (N-R-2-methylene-3,3-dimethylindoline) R=CH3 were synthesized; C2H5; C3H7; C5H11; C14H29; C18H37. 4. Opto-chemical studies have established a correlation between the length of the radical and the effective photosensitivity. The critical concentration of micellization has been determined. Based on studies of micellization, the authors developed a new method for increasing the photosensitivity of a nanostructured system. 5. The optical-chemical properties of the films were studied using microscopic and spectral studies. 6. The target spiropyrans are obtained by condensation of the obtained bases. 7. The influence of the ratio of some components of the nemato-chiral matrix on the photosensitivity under the conditions of the selected concentration of spiropyran was studied. 8. Using optical and microscopic studies, the dependence of the technological characteristics of films (capsule size, film thickness, stretching orientation) on photosensitivity was studied. The technological characteristics of films affect their photosensitivity; A decrease in the size of microcapsules, an increase in their thickness, and stretching lead to an increase in the photosensitivity of the films. 9. Synthesized 6-nitropyr-doxal as a complex mixture. Synthesized 4-aza-N-R-2-methylene-3,3-dimethylindolines. 10. The influence of the properties of the nematic and nemato-chiral matrix on the photosensitivity of the composition was studied. The photosensitivity of nematic and nemato-chiral compositions is compared. 11. An optical-spectral and microscopic study of the obtained polymer films were carried out. The photosensitivity of nematic and nematochiral TC polymer films is compared. 12. The corresponding spiropyrans, spiro-7-azachromenes, were synthesized on the basis of the starting materials obtained. "
AR/54/4-100/11Paper Based Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Interferential Mirror for New Kind of Reflective Displays2011- competition of state scientific grants for applied researchShota Rustaveli National Science Foundation and Georgian Technical University168 000 ლარი01/04/2012 -01/04/2014Gia PatriashviliKokhta Japaridze, Tsisana Zurabishvili, Lali Devadze, Nino Sepashvili, Nino Ponjavidze In this project, a new type of stretchable cholesteric liquid crystal mirror had elaborated. A simple and effective way of applying the cholesteric mixture on a paper base, and the spatial design of the device gives us a uniform orientation of the cholesteric texture, which ensures a uniform and intense reflection of the mirror. In addition, the non-encapsulated design and spatial architecture reduce light scattering and ensure that incident light is reflected evenly. The potential application area for reflective displays is much larger today. Interest in daylight-readable, low-power, reflective displays is gaining rapidly, along with the on-demand e-book market. For example, they can be used as selective reflectors in host-guest displays, where the host-guest system can contain complementary colors due to the selective reflectivity of the cholesteric mirror. In addition, the use of cholesteric mirrors results in cheaper reflectors compared to silver-coated surfaces currently used in display technologies, and will also be more durable. Flexible mirrors can also be used in optoelectronics, smart cards, and labels, adaptive optics, astronomy, medicine, flaw detection, and ultraviolet dosimetry. We have selected and studied commercially available and certified monomers that are resistant to irradiation of light in the visible part of the optical spectrum (Δλ= 400-750 nm) and undergo photopolymerization transformations when exposed to ultraviolet light (λ<380 nm). These are substances DZLI-811, MLC-6247/48, MLC-4571/72. Photoisomerization of the light-sensitive molecule ZLI-811 occurs as a result of ultraviolet irradiation. The absorption spectrum of ZLI-811 was recorded. The MLC-6247 molecule is also photosensitive and its absorption spectrum has been recorded. Cholesteric liquid crystal impurities with the minimum temperature dependence of selective reflection ∂P/∂T=0 were obtained and studied. Initially, two-component cholesteric liquid crystals with different spectral positions of peaks of maximum selective reflection λ were studied. For each impurity, the temperature dependence of the selective reflection was recorded using a spectrometer. Three-component cholesteric liquid crystals were also fabricated and studied, the temperature dependence of their midpoint of the selective reflection peak λ was determined, and the temperature dependence of the spectral position of the selective peaks was studied. The intensities of the selective reflection peaks of a cholesteric liquid crystal depend significantly on the half-width of the selective peaks, the value of which is determined by the following relationship: Δλ=P0 × Δn, where P0 is the cholesteric wavelength (period) on which light is reflected, Δn =ne-n0 is the optical anisotropy of the nematic matrix. Cholesteric liquid crystals with different spectral half-widths are selected and their thermooptical characteristics are measured. The temperature shifts of the selective reflection peaks of cholesteric liquid crystal impurities, as well as the temperature dependences of the half-widths of the selective reflection peaks, are shown graphically. At this stage of the project, we have selected and studied such commercially available and certified monomers that are resistant to irradiation with light in the visible part of the optical spectrum (Δλ= 400-750 nm) and undergo photopolymerization transformations under the action of ultraviolet light. Cholesteric liquid crystal impurities with the minimum temperature dependence of selective reflection ∂P/∂T= 0 were obtained and studied. Initially, two-component cholesteric liquid crystals with different spectral positions of the maxima of the selective reflection peaks λ were studied. For each impurity, the temperature dependence of the selective reflection was recorded using a spectrometer. Three-component cholesteric liquid crystals were also fabricated and studied, and the temperature dependence of their midpoint of the selective reflection peak was determined. 1. A new type of flexible cholesteric liquid crystal mirror was fabricated and investigated. 2.Non-encapsulated design and spatial architecture reduce the scattering of incident light and ensure uniform reflection. 3. Liquid-crystal cholesteric mirrors can be used in displays based on selective light reflection, which is cheaper compared to the modern technology of coating the surfaces of displays with silver.
FR 217330New Rewritable Optical Storage on the Basis of Spiropyran doped Liquid Crystal Bilayer Polymer FilmCompetition for state scientific grants for fundamental research.Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia140 000 ლარი 12. 12 2016 – 12.12. 2018Gia PatriashviliTsisana Zurabishvili, Lali Devadze, Nino Sepashvili, Nino Ponjavidze In this project, we have introduced a new type of rewritable photochromic medium based on a spiropyran doped liquid crystal double-layer polymer (SP-LCBP) film, in which the photosensitive layer is synergistically combined to enable multiple recordings of optical information in cholesterol liquid crystals. This combination of two structures allows us to modulate such optical parameters of the recorded image as absorption, reflection, refraction and color gradation. Due to improved light sensitivity and optical contrast, good resistance to photodegradation and high spatial resolution, our fabricated light-sensitive materials improve existing optically rewritable and mechanically flexible imaging devices. In addition, the proposed photochromic medium acts as a multifunctional dynamic photosensitizer and an inexpensive tool with real-time image recording/erasing properties, and significant spatial changes in light-induced stiffness, reflectance, refraction, and color between the two states will allow us to develop photochromic composites to form three-dimensional microstructure. The obtained results can be used in such areas as: protection against counterfeiting and trademarks, identification, detection, healthcare, logistics, industry, environmental safety. The goals and aims of the scientific project were: a) The development of a new type of optically rewritable photochromic material based on the SP-LCBP film. b) The demonstration of a simple method of fabricating photochromic film(SP-TCBP using microencapsulation, polymerization and sequential application of polymer layers c) The demonstration of full control of optical parameters, absorption and luminescence. In order to achieve the goals and aims set in the project, certified and commercially available liquid crystal nematic matrices, liquid crystal, non-liquid crystal optically active additives, and photosensitive substances - spiropyran, polyvinyl alcohol (in powder form) were selected and purchased. For each component, optical, thermal, and photo-optical parameters were determined by spectral analysis, such as light absorption and transmittance in the ultraviolet (UV) and visible (VIS) ranges of the optical spectrum, temperature intervals of phase existence, photo-optical and thermo-optical stability. Nematic matrices doped with spiropyran were fabricated. As a result of spectroscopic studies, the concentration solubility intervals of spiropyran in various nematic matrices were determined, and the optimal concentration of spiropyran was determined. The transition from the closed colorless form of spiropyran (SP) to the open colored form of merocyanine (MC) was studied. By mixing initial nematic matrices and optically active additives in a certain percentage ratio, cholesteric liquid-crystal mixtures were prepared and their optical, thermal, and photo-optical properties were studied: the spectral position of the selective light reflection peaks, their half-widths, and the temperature dependence of the position of these peaks. As a result of the research, cholesteric mixtures with specified optical and thermooptical properties were selected. The resulting liquid crystal (LC) films doped with spiropyran consisted of two technological layers: I - durable protective layer based on 8% aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol; I I- is an encapsulated layer based on a nematic TC composition doped with spiropyran in a polymer matrix, which consisted of microcapsules of a nematic TC composition doped with spiropyran in a polymer matrix. III- Application of the encapsulated layer (emulsion) using a special device:A 17% aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol in the range of 720-780°C, which is fixed by the isotropic state of the TS photochromic composition, was stirred for 5 minutes at a constant temperature. A nematic composition of LC doped with spiropyran (60% by weight of the dry polymer) is added to the solution, heated to an isotropic state. The emulsifier glacial acetic acid (75 ml per 1 liter of polymer solution) was then added. The emulsion was stirred at a constant temperature at a speed of 1200 rpm. The emulsion was prepared for 30 min. As a result, we got an emulsified paste, which is an encapsulated layer. A protective layer is applied to the polished glass of a special drying unit. After evaporation (removal) of the solvent, an encapsulated layer cooled to room temperature is poured onto layer I. The wire stretched over the side surface of the glass has a thickness of 300 micrometers. The average thickness of the obtained films is 40 μm. The resulting film is elastic and at the same time mechanically stable. The morphology of the film surface was visualized and studied using an optical microscope. Also estimated the average size of microcapsules located at intervals of 5-15 micrometers. To study SP-LCBP films, a flash lamp with a pulse duration of 500 μs and a pulse power of 0.04 J/sec was used. For the conversion of spiropyran to merocyanine, only the ultraviolet/violet region of the spectrum was used, which was separated using a filter with a wavelength of 340-400 nm. And the transition of merocyanine to spiropyran was carried out using a filter with 540-630 nm. One of the important parameters characterizing an image recorded on a photochromic tape is resolution. If we take into account that images recorded on tape consist of dots of 10 micrometers in size (that is, the average size of microcapsules), then we can conclude that the image resolution is 100 lines per millimeter. At the next stage of the experiments, the static contrast of the recorded images was evaluated, for which the following formulas were used. Using these formulas and as a result of spectroscopic measurements, the numerical value of the static contrast ratio recorded in the tapes was calculated to be 22, which is a fairly good indicator. Evaluation of the erasure and photostability of images recorded on photochromic films is of particular importance when working with thermochromic films doped with spiropyran. We have recorded/erased images on the same SP-LCBP tape multiple times. Also, on the basis of certain optical parameters, the cyclic recording/erasing of the same image on a SP-TSBP tape is theoretically calculated. Theoretical calculations were compared with the experimental results, and corresponding graphs were constructed for both cases. It has been found that the SP-TCBP tape can write/erase the image about 70 times without degrading the quality of the recorded image. It should be noted that the merocyanine molecule has a fairly high luminescence. This feature was used by us for multiple recording/erasing of luminescent images on SP-THBP cassettes, which creates additional possibilities for using these tapes. The write/erase and static contrast ratio are the same as when using tapes in non-luminescent mode. 1. A new type of optically controlled photochromic rewriter based on a liquid crystal polymer film doped with spiropyran has been elaborated. This film is flexible, mechanically stable and allows multiple (about 70 times) recording of information on it, so that the film and the degradation of the image recorded on it. 2. As a result of optical measurements and the corresponding mathematical calculations, the contrast of the recorded information was determined to be 22. 3. The films produced are distinguished by high sensitivity and color contrast characteristics, are cheap, reusable, non-toxic and technologically easy fabricated. 4. Information from these films can be read by using modern smartphones.
GNSF/ST08--474Search for Improvement of Properties of High-Temperature Superconducting Materials via Doping and IrradiationFundamental Research GrantsShota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia99000 ლარი01.03.2009-28.02.2011Alexander Shengelaya Alexander Shengelaya, Nikoloz Margiani, Izolda Mzhavanadze, Natela Papunashvili, Alexander Maisuradze, Ioseb Metskhvarishvili The objective of the Project was to investigate the effects of boron, lithium, calcium-doping and irradiation on the transport and magnetic properties of yttrium and bismuth-based HTS materials and search for improvement of their characteristics and superconducting volume fraction. "The phase purity of obtained samples was checked by X-ray diffraction analysis. Various post-sintering cooling rates from slow cooling in furnace to quenching into liquid nitrogen was applied to B and Li-doped Bi2212 and Bi(Pb)2212 phase.in air atmosphere. The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity and critical current density was measured by a standard four-probe method. Critical temperature and critical current was also measured using AC susceptibility. " The comparative analysis of the results of the Project provided important new information about controlled changes and optimization of important superconducting characteristics: Jc, Tc and superconducting volume fraction. This could lead to the manufacture of materials with higher Tc and Jc, which is technologically important for a wide range of applications. We expect that obtained results will also help to better understand phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, which is one of the most important open problems in modern condensed matter physics.
GNSF/ST09_844_7-121Influence of doping of micro and nanometer-sized B2O3 particles on the phase formation and superconducting properties of Y(RE)Ba2Cu3Oy materialsFundamental Research GrantsShota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia150000 ლარი22.01.2010 - 22.01.2013Nikoloz Margiani Nikoloz Margiani, Izolda Mzhavanadze, Natela Papunashvili, Tamaz Medoidze, Dali Dzanashvili, Magda Metskhvarishvili, Ioseb Metskhvarishvili the effects of doping of micro and nano-sized B2O3 particles on the electric and magnetic properties of RE123 HTSs were investigate in order to find necessary optimal conditions for enhancement of the inter-grain critical current density and superconducting phase formation kinetics in the RE123 materials. The transport critical current density and temperature dependence of resistivity were measured using a four-probe method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was used for phase identification. Project results provided a novel information about the controllable changes and optimization of the important superconducting characteristics of RE123 HTS materials: transport (intergranular) critical current density and superconducting phase formation kinetics. This could be technologically important for a widespread applications of these materials (RE123 bulk magnets, RE123 coated conductors etc.). The potential end-users of the Project results are the scientists and specialists interested in the field of high temperature superconductivity.
N 11–tr-066Phase Evolution and Superconducting Properties of Boron-doped (Bi,Pb)-2223 HTSsshort-term individual travel grantShota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia1549,71 ლარი11.08.2011- 17.08.2011Nikoloz Margiani Nikoloz Margiani Two series of the nominally pure and boron-doped (Bi,Pb)-2223 HTSs with the same nominal compositions Bi1.7Pb0.3Ca2Sr2Cu3BxOy) were prepared by the solid state reaction method in an alumina crucibles and on an alumina plates. The synthesized compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The resistivity as a function of temperature, r(t), and temperature dependence of the AC susceptibility, ’(T), were also measured Obtained results indicate that boron dopant drastically accelerates the formation of (Bi,Pb)-2223 HTS synthesized in alumina crucibles. The boron-doped revealed significant improvement in the zero resistivity temperature compared to the control sample. On the other hand, the additives of boron have shown to have a beneficial effect on the formation of (Bi,Pb)-2223 HTSs prepared by the heat treatment of Bi1.7Pb0.3Ca2Sr2Cu3BxOy precursors on alumina plates, although do not essentially affect the critical temperature of nominally pure compound
2012_tr_266Influence of Boron-containing Dopants on Superconducting Properties of (Bi,Pb)-2223 HTSshort-term individual travel grantShota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia877,39 ლარი29.04.2012 –04.05.2012Nikoloz Margiani Nikoloz Margiani the impact of boron-containing dopants, Pb(BO2)2 and B2O3, on the formation, critical temperature and transport critical current density of (Bi,Pb)-2223 HTSs prepared via heat treatment of the precursors in an alumina crucibles were investigated The synthesized compounds were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The resistivity as a function of temperature, r(t), and transport critical current were measured by a standard four-probe method. boron-containing dopants act as a flux during the sintering process and thereby promote extra liquid formation and accelerating the (Bi,Pb)-2223 phase growth. We could conclude that choosing the optimum content of boron-containing dopants it could be possible to prepare a significant amount of nearly single (Bi,Pb)-2223 phase materials in an alumina crucibles after a relatively short solid-state reaction time.
SC /38/6-260/13Study of physical properties of high-temperature superconductor prepared using nanotechnologyRESEARCH PROJECTS WITH PARTICIPATION OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTSShota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia6000 ლარი11.12.2013 – 11.03.2014Nikoloz Margiani Nikoloz Margiani, Ketevan Sadradze The objective of the Project is to develop an accelerated processing route to prepare a nano-Pb(BO2)2 added bismuth-based superconductor with enhanced current-carrying capability. The influence of high-energy ball milling and doping on the phase formation and superconducting properties of (Bi, Pb)-2223 HTS was investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis, resistivity and critical current density measurements were performed. Suitable dopingand high-energy ball milling leads to the enhancement of critical current density and superconducting volume fraction
2014_tr_394Influence of Pb(BO2)2 Doping on Superconducting Properties of (Bi,Pb)-2223 HTSshort-term individual travel grantShota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia3081,48 ლარი27.04.2014 –02.05.2014Nikoloz Margiani Nikoloz Margiani The effect of lead borate Pb(BO2)2 doping on the phase formation and superconducting properties of (Bi,Pb)-2223 HTS has been studied The synthesized compounds were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The resistivity as a function of temperature and transport critical current were measured by a standard four-probe method. The transport critical current densities were evaluated at the liquid nitrogen temperature in the self field, with a criterion of 1 µV/cm. Partial substitution of lead borate Pb(BO2)2 for lead oxide PbO promotes the formation of (Bi,Pb)-2223 phase and leads to the enhancement of transport properties compared to the reference sample.
DI-18-479Bi(Pb)-2223 ceramics;doping;high-energy ball milling;phase formation;superconducting propertiesRESEARCH WITH PARTICIPATION OF COMPATRIOTS RESIDING ABROADShota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia209830 ლარი13.12.2018–12.12.2021Armen Kuzanyan "Armen Kuzanyan, Nikoloz Margiani, Giorgi Mumladze, Iamze Kvartskhava, Vakhtang Zhghamadze, Tinatin Sarashvili, Levani Gabisonia, Dali Dzanashvili " "The first-priority aim of the Project was to create an advanced, cheap and energy efficient technology which controls the fabrication of BN, B4C, Pb(BO2)2 and Sr(BO2)2-doped Bi(Pb)-2223 superconductors with higher Jc and enhanced formation rate compared to the conventional technology. " "The proposed investigations was focused on three key objectives: a) Clarify the fundamental mechanisms by which the boron-containing dopants alter the superconducting properties of Bi(Pb)-2223; b) Select&optimize the doping level, particle size distribution and thermo-mechanical processing schedule, for the precursors; c) Fabricate&test the short-length (5-10 cm) Ag-sheated Bi(Pb)-2223 superconducting wires, using the optimized precursors. Fabrication process of Bi(Pb)-2223 superconducting bulk samples will be realized using the methods of additional and substitutional doping. " As a result of numerous physical-technological research conducted within the framework of the project, it has been reliably confirmed that as a result of the use of boron-containing dopants and additives, it is possible to obtain a much larger amount of high-quality Bi(Pb)-2223 superconducting material in an accelerated, (shorter synthesis time) way, compared to traditional technology. This technologically important result obtained by the project team is due to the fact that, unlike the traditional, i.e. without additives and non-doped Bi(Pb)-2223 precursor material, boron-containing additives/dopants neutralize the so-called "precursor thickness effect". Our project group drew attention to this effect for the first time and chose the name. In short, the "precursor thickness effect" refers to a sharp deterioration of the properties of the final superconducting product (a sharp drop in the value of the volume fraction of the Bi(Pb)-2223 superconducting phase and the critical current density) with the increase in the amount of undoped/doped precursor powder placed in the crucible, in particular, with the thickness increase.
FR-18-4976Tuning the functional properties of Co-based thermoelectrics via doping and high-energy ball millingFundamental Research GrantsShota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia218555 ლარი27.02.2019–26.02.2022Nikoloz MargianiNikoloz Margiani, Giorgi Mumladze, Iamze Kvartskhava, Vakhtang Zhghamadze, Maia Balakhashvili The aim of the present project was to tune TE properties (Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, power factor, total thermal conductivity and figure of merit) of Ca3Co4O9 and Bi2M2CoxOy (M= Ca and Sr) materials through the doping with calcium borate- Ca(BO2)2, lead borate-Pb(BO2)2, strontium borate-Sr(BO2)2, boron nitride-BN, and boron carbide-B4C. The proposed investigations will be focused on three key objectives: Investigation the influence of dopants on the functional properties of Co-based thermoelectric materials;Studying the effects of high-energy ball milling on the TE efficiency; Tuning the functional properties of cobaltites by the control&optimization of the doping level, high-energy ball milling processing and thermal treatment of precursors. Improvement of thermoelectric properties was achieved (Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, power factor, total thermal conductivity and Figure of Merit) of Ca3Co4O9 and Bi2M2CoxOy (M= Ca and Sr) materials with calcium borate-Ca(BO2)2, lead borate-Pb(BO2)2, strontium borate- through Sr(BO2)2, boron nitride-BN and boron carbide-B4C dopants. Besides: 1. It has been reliably confirmed that the use of boron-containing additives and dopants selected by the project team dramatically increases the efficiency of Bi2Ca2CoxOy and Bi2Sr2CoxOy thermoelectrics (improves the power factor and Figure of Merit); 2. Re-grinding, heat treatment and re-pressing the powders in the form of pellets under hydrostatic pressure, significantly increases the density of the materials and, therefore, the electrical conductivity, which is a contributing factor to the improvement of the thermoelectric conversion.
CARYS-19-675Development of high-performance calcium cobaltite thermoelectric materials through doping and nanoengineering Applied Research GrantsShota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia249000 ლარი31.07.2020-29.07.2021Nikoloz MargianiNikoloz Margiani, Andrei Klyndyuk, Giorgi Mumladze, Levani Gabisonia, Iamze Kvartskhava, Vakhtang Zhghamadze, Tinatin Shubitidze, Maia Balakhashvili "The core concept of this Project was to explore the combined effects of boron-containing dopants and nanostructuring (high-energy ball milling) on the thermoelectric properties of layered Ca3Co4O9 materials. " "(Ca,Bi)3Co4O9 materials doped with boron-containing compounds was synthesized by a solid state reaction. To compare results, undoped (reference) samples was also prepared. Fabrication process of thermoelectric materials (Ca,Bi)3Co4O9 materials doped with boron-containing compounds will be synthesized by a solid state reaction. To compare results, undoped (reference) samples will be also prepared. Fabrication process of thermoelectric materials will be realized using the methods of (i) additional (over stoichiometric) and (ii) substitutional doping. Additonal doping of boron oxide-B2O3 into (Ca,Bi)3Co4O9: the appropriate amounts of Bi2O3, CaCO3 and Co3O4 reagents will be used to prepare (Ca,Bi)3Co4O9 by the standard solid state reaction. Mixed powders will be sintered in the muffle furnace. Then, precursor powders will be divided into two groups before pressing. Various amounts of boron oxide-B2O3 will be introduced into the precursors as over stoichiometric. " Innovative approaches of this Project will pave promising pathway toward realizing of practical applications and commercialization of thermoelectric generators for waste heat recovery, using high-performance thermoelectric materials developed by the Project team
PHDF-19-421Development of Bi-based HTS thin films, doped by boron-containing compoundsPHD PROGRAMME CALLSShota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia10500 ლარი26.09.2019 - 26.03.2020Giorgi Mumladze Giorgi Mumladze "Among a superconducting materials, bismuth-based (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Oy compound, called Bi(Pb)-2223, is one of the most interesting for its great potential for large-scale applications in the no-loss electric power industry. After the discovery of Bi(Pb)-2223 superconductor, tremendous efforts have been undertaken to accelerate the formation of (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Oy materials and improve their current carrying capacity. Researches implemented in our lab made a great contribution in finding of the suitable boron-containing dopants. Our results have shown that high-energy ball milling of precursor powders leads to 1,5 times increase of Jc in comparison with micro-sized ones. The project aims to prepare Bi-based HTS thin films, having enhanced HTS phase purity and high Tc value via the doping with boron-containing compounds (boron nitride - BN and boron carbide - B4C). DC/RF sputtering technique will let us fabricate the thin films with targets, based both on materials obtained in our lab and on the preliminary selected substrates as well. " "The project has a stated goal: Fabrication of boron compound-doped Bi(Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Oy thin films with best phase purity and critical current density through superconducting target samples. To achieve these goals, the following tasks are set: (1) Synthesis of high-temperature superconducting samples as potential targets; (2) Measurements on targets; (3) Deposition of thin films. Task 1. Synthesis of high-temperature superconducting samples as potential targets; a) Synthesis of non-doped (reference) sample Bi(Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Oy. b) Synthesis of a series of BN-doped Bi(Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Oy(BN)x compounds by solid-state reaction method; c) Synthesis of a series of B4C-doped Bi(Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Oy(B4C)x compounds by solid-state reaction method; Task 2. Measurements on targets Resistivity vs temperature dependence; critical current density; XRD images Task 3. Thin film deposition After the synthesis of the above-mentioned superconducting material and the identification of the best target samples (with high values of the superconducting phase and electrical transport parameters), the series of the mentioned target samples will be used in the fabrication of thin films by DC technology. Before using this methodology, I will need to consult closely with my Hungarian mentor, as well as with our Armenian partner, who has experience in depositing superconducting materials on various substrates. The optimal substrate and the optimal deposition mode will be selected. In performing this task, I fully trust my mentor and consultants, since this stage is the ""debut"" of our materials (superconducting system containing bismuth doped with boron compounds) on tapes, and their experience should be a certain prerequisite for success. " We successfully implemented synthesis of working material — potential targets, which was confirmed by electro-physical measurements. The experiments carried out in Thin Films Lab (Budapest, Hungary) were particularly important. XRD measurements (Bruker 8M Discover XRD) show increase of HTS phase from 56% in reference sample up to 88% for the doped one. This is definitely a successful result. Thanks to Hungarian mentors, our targeting samples proceeded the TEM/STEM imaging and elemental mapping (Thermo Fisher Scientific); it allowed us to observe visibly the phase and elemental distribution of material, declared by the measurements. Finally, using the prepared targets and DC magnetron sputtering method, we, along with our Hungarian mentors, carried out the test deposition experiment on the SiO2 substrate (from Hungarian colleagues). This procedure was carried out successfully. It should be noted that it was the first attempt of using the targeting material, synthesized in our lab, for film deposition.
GNSF/ST08/1-365Recording of optical information during the polarized light-controlled phase transitions in organic compoundsApplied ResearchShota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia56000 ლარი02.03.2009 - 01.03.2011Tariel Ebralidze Tariel Ebralidze, Nadia Ebralidze, Giorgi Mumladze "The project is dedicated to the photo-induction of optical anisotropy in organic compounds and study of problems of the optical information recording on its basis. With photo-induced anisotropy, the recording of light intensity information may occur in a variety of ways. At massive crystallization of the dye, in a gelatine film supersaturated with organic dichroic dyes, there will occur a statistically isotropic ensemble of dye anisotropic micro-particles (grains) with chaotic orientations of their optical axes. By the action of active linearly polarized light on the film it is possible now to cause, in some grains, photo-induced reorientation of molecules or disintegration of the grains, making the isotropic ensemble of anisotropic grains statistically anisotropic. Furthermore, grainy anisotropy may be obtained also without any crystallization in a film supersaturated with dye. Exposure of this film to linearly-polarized light will enable us to stimulate at once texturized polycristallization process. The aim of the study is to establish and study the photo-induction of anisotropy with the grain structure in organic compounds based on the light-controlled phase transitions, during which the image in the film will be created in the same way as the image is created in the silver emulsions, with the distribution of grains allowing for linear recording of the image. The expected results of the study are as follows: detection of the cases of photoinduction of anisotropy with the grain structure on the basis of the light-controlled phase transitions and determination of the conditions necessary to induce anisotropy with the grain structure in organic compounds. " "The aim of the study is to establish and study the photo-induction of anisotropy with the grain structure in organic compounds based on the light-controlled phase transitions, during which the image in the film will be created in the same way as the image is created in the silver emulsions, with the distribution of grains allowing for linear recording of the image. The objectives of the research are as follows: 1) Reaching and studying mass molecule aggregation in the gelatin films painted with dyes. (The cases of molecule mass aggregation in the dyes or in the gelatin films supersaturated with the mixture of dyes will be established. The conditions to reach the mass molecule aggregations will be identified. Optical and crystal-optical properties of the dye molecule aggregates will be studied. In particular, spectral distribution of the aggregate absorption and dichroism will be identified. The conditions to reach the changes to the anisotropic grain sizes and their equal distribution in the film will be identified). 2) Reaching and studying the light-induced re-orientation of optical axes of anisotropic grains and light-induced destruction of anisotropic grains in the selected dyes. (The conditions necessary to realize the photo-orientation of the optical axes of anisotropic grains and photo-destruction of anisotropic grains will be identified. Their relations to the dye and gelatin concentrations in the film will be established. Based on the mentioned events, the photo-induction of optical anisotropy with the grain structure will be realized). 3) Reaching and studying the photo-induction of the anisotropic grains with similar-orientation optical axes in the selected dyes. (The conditions necessary to induce the textured ensemble of anisotropic grains in the film supersaturated with the dye under the influence of active polarized light will be identified. The relation of the mentioned process to the conditions of the film preparation will be studied). 4) Determination of the dependence of photo-induced anisotropy on the exposition of active light in the dynamic regime of the anisotropy photo-induction. (The optical parameters characterizing the film will be defined. The dependence of the spectral distributions of dichroism and spectral transmissions of the film located between the crossed polarizers on the expositions of active light under the dynamic regime of the anisotropy photo-induction will be studied). " "The obtained results: detection of the cases of anisotropy photoinduction with the grain structure on the basis of the light-controlled phase transitions and determination of the conditions necessary to induce anisotropy with the grain structure in organic compounds. The obtained results are significant in that the image in the film is formed in the same way as it is formed in silver emulsions by the grain distribution. The grains on average, do have equal optical parameters. This type of photoinduction of optical anisotropy is qualitatively different from the type of anisotropy obtained on the basis of the molecule photo-orientation in amorphous films. During the photo-orientation of the molecules in amorphous films, the image in the film is formed by distribution of the value of birefringence and therefore, in general, a non-linear recording of the image takes place. Unlike this phenomena, in our case a linear recording of the image became possible based on the photo-induction of optical anisotropy. This boosts the possibilities to use the photo-induction of optical anisotropy in the field of information recording and development. The phenomena of the photo-induction of grain anisotropy will be used in the field of display technologies, for the purpose of creating optical elements, photonic crystals, micro-structures of various designations, etc. It will expand our understanding of the light-controlled phase transitions in organic compounds. "
#266155 Re-creation and building of capacities in Georgian ICT Research Institutes” (GEO-RECAP)FP7 - INCO. 2010-6.1: Eastern Euro­pe and South Cau­casus. European Commission 397719 ევრო01.11.2010 – 31.10.2012George Giorgobiani (MICM), Giorgi Mumladze (contact-coordinator from IC) MICM, Institute of Cybernetics, ICARTI, GIRAF, ERCIM "The GEO-RECAP project is an EU FP7 funded INCO project which aims to re-create and build capacities in Georgian ICT Research Institutes. Modernization of research system is one of the most important issues in the country. Though the research institutes have its own profile and are highly specialized in particular research areas, diversification of the scientific fields imply the problems of management, difficulties to create synergies, etc. Mainstream of GEO-RECAP to improve the profile of ICT scientific institutes and to elaborate new funding models, in particular with regard to international programmes and projects is in line with the appropriate reforms in Georgia, where ICT is regarded as a national priority area. GEO-RECAP consortium includes two leading Georgian ICT research centers GTU-MICM and GTU-IC. They are supported by the European partners DFKI GmbH, GIRAF PM Services GmbH, GEIE ERCIM and the local partner ICARTI, which are distinguished and experienced organizations in their own fields of expertise. By bringing together research teams from ERA and Georgia, GEO-RECAP allows both sides to extend their knowledge and expertise in ICT." "Up to recently Georgia’s research system comprised 7 public universities and more than 60 researchinstitutes. Research was carried out at the research institutes and at the universities. Universities additionally fulfilled the education and training function. The research institutes were established as legal entities of public law, each with its own profile and highly specialized in a particular research area. Diversification of the scientific fields at the institutes implied the problems of management. Moreover, it was very difficult for each individual institute to generate a significant impact on national, regional, or European and International level. Due to the conducted reforms, in the beginning of 2011 most of the research institutes joined the State Universities. According to this process MICM and IC merged to the Georgian Technical University (GTU), as independent structural units (ICT cluster). As part of the continuing reform of the research system, Georgia tries not only to improve the number and profile of its scientific research institutions but also to elaborate new funding models in particular with regard to International Programmes and projects. Hereby, the area of information and communication technologies (ICT) is considered the national priority area. Thus, supporting research in ICT will imply significant positive socio-economic effects and positive impacts. Due to the trend of consolidation and reorganization and an important role of ICT, GEO-RECAP consortium includes two leading Georgian research centers in this area - GTU-MICM and GTU-IC. Georgian researchers are supported by the European partners DFKI GmbH, GIRAF PM Services GmbH, GEIE ERCIM and the local partner ICARTI, which are distinguished and experienced organizations in their own fields of expertise such as: innovative software technologies, Informatics and Mathematics, training and consultancy etc. According to its central goal to initiate and increase scientific cooperation between the ERA and both GTU-MICM and GTU-IC, GEO-RECAP will systematically support Georgian institutes in the venture to enhance the cooperation capacities. The impact of the project on the Georgian ICT research community will be maximized as both centers will act as trend-setters with regard to international research cooperation. The strategy developed within GEO-RECAP directly contributes to the ongoing and wanted general reorganization. Considering that ICT is of central importance both to ERA and Georgia and that through GTU-MICM and GTU-IC Georgia offers leading ICT centers, GEO-RECAP will not only be beneficial to Georgia, but also to ERA: By bringing together research teams from ERA and Georgia, GEO-RECAP allows both sides to extend their knowledge and expertise in ICT, to minimize costs (through cooperation and collaboration) and to maximize outputs of the research activities. Overall, GEO-RECAP will implement a set of focused activities – networking, training and coaching, strategy development – in order to build and maximize the cooperation capacities of the Georgian research centers. Exceptionally, GEO-RECAP will be designed as a practical “training-on-the job” and supported “learning-by-doing” action that will empower the Georgian research centers and allow them not only to learn but also put into practice everything that is relevant to sustaining and actively integrating themselves into the international research community. In all their tasks, they will be guided, advised and directly supported by the respective European expert(s) and the local player ICARTI. Project pursues the following specific objectives: Objective O. 1: To conduct two networking events – one in Georgia and one in ERA. The events enable exchange and partnering between Georgian researchers and their matching European counterparts. DFKI’s and ERCIM' contacts and dissemination channels ensure the recruitment of best and most relevant top-level European experts. The main selection criteria are (i) research expertise that matches the research capacities and interests of GTU-MICM and GTU-IC, and (ii) capacity and experience to initiate a joint project. Networking events include: networking session, poster session, technical session. Objective O.2: To conduct two training workshops and to design the coaching scheme for Georgian researchers. The training workshops comprise science-related training to raise awareness among the participating Georgian researchers on EU ICT priority research areas and cooperative opportunities in FP7. They also include actual EU project training. The coaching scheme will allow a number of Georgian researchers to meet and directly work with suitable European partners for actual practice and implementation of joint projects. Basis for the mobility of researchers is a mobility scheme. Each mobility grant is intended to contribute to travel and subsistence costs for one participant of the networking event or the coaching scheme. The scheme includes an online submission tool on the project website. Evaluation and allocation of grants is done by the project steering committee. Objective O.3: Development of a sustainable strategy to increase the research centre’s regional coverage and to improve its response to the existing socio-economic conditions. Objective is based on the conduct of a SWOT analysis. The strategy will give clear recommendations as to how the institutes can change their structures with regard to links with other institutes/universities, innovation and links with industry. The required information will be obtained through interviews with GTU-MICM and GTU-IC directors, heads of departments and leaders of research groups. Based on the outcomes of this analysis, a corresponding strategy will be suggested to the Georgian research centers. The details of the SWOT analysis as well as the development strategy will be formally laid down in the Strategy papers. Objective O.3: Development of a sustainable strategy to increase the research centre’s regional coverage and to improve its response to the existing socio-economic conditions. Objective is based on the conduct of a SWOT analysis. The strategy will give clear recommendations as to how the institutes can change their structures with regard to links with other institutes/universities, innovation and links with industry. The required information will be obtained through interviews with GTU-MICM and GTU-IC directors, heads of departments and leaders of research groups. Based on the outcomes of this analysis, a corresponding strategy will be suggested to the Georgian research centers. The details of the SWOT analysis as well as the development strategy will be formally laid down in the Strategy papers." "WP1 – Networking: 1st Networking Event was held in Budapest, Hungary, in parallel with European Future Technologies Conference and Exhibition 2011 (fet11), 4-6 May. Publication of the 1st Networking Event: ""Supporting Georgia in Enhancing the Cooperation Capacities of its ICT Research Centers” (ERCIM News, #84, January, 2011, pg. 9; http://ercim-news.ercim.eu/ images/stories/EN84/EN84-web.pdf); 2nd Networking Event was held in Tbilisi, Georgia, at the Meeting Room of the Georgian Technical University (GTU), 27 - 28 June, 2012. Event was organized by GTU-MICM, GTU-IC and ICARTI. Publication of the networking event: the websites of GTU ttp://news.gtu.ge/index.php?newsid=1887, the websites of GTU-MICM and GTU-IC (http://www.compmath.ge, http://www.cybernet.ge/) and of GHN News Agency http://ghn.ge/news-70064.html; G. Giorgobiani, G. Kochoradze. Cooperation with Georgia’s ICT Research Centers: The Second GEO-RECAP Networking Event. ERCIM News #91, October, 2012, pg. 4 http://ercim-news.ercim.eu/images/stories/EN91/EN91-web.pdf WP2 – Training and Coaching The 1st Training Event was held in Tbilisi, GTU, 18-19 June, 2011. The preparations started right after the return of the Georgian team from Budapest. The responsible for this Event was GIRAF PM Services GmbH. 21 participants for the 1st Training Event were selected by GTU-MICM and GTU-IC based on (i) their research expertise and (ii) on the relevance of their research to the upcoming FP7 calls (in particular ICT). The training event included the following basic modules: 1. Theoretical training: How to identify funding opportunities, in particular in FP7; How to shape a project idea;How to write a proposal (in particular Part B); How to find partners; Overview of Evaluation and Submission Process; Basics of Financial Regime in FP7 2. Practical Training: Presentation of individual research ideas/proposals by Georgian scientists; Identification of funding opportunities; Evaluation of proposal with recommendations for change and mediation of partners Overall 21 Georgian researchers received theoretical training and relevant practical exercises based on real successful projects and the upcoming ICT and other calls. 2nd training event was conducted at GTU in Tbilisi (Georgia), on 15-16 October, 2012. The objectives of the training were to raise awareness on EU ICT priority research areas and cooperative opportunities in FP7 among Georgian researchers. Overall 14 researchers participated in the Coaching Scheme, which allowed them to meet and directly work with suitable European partners for actual practice and implementation of joint-projects. Outcomes: 1. Submitted 1 TEMPUS proposal (TEMPUS IV - 5th Call for Proposals) 2. Submitted 3 research FP7 proposal (FP7-INCO-2013-9) 3. Prepared 1 research FP7 proposal (FP7-ICT-2013-11; ICT-2013.3.2 Photonics) 4. 2 proposals for the Alain Bensoussan Fellowship Programme (ERCIM) 5. Signature of collaboration agreements GTU – HTW, GTU- UDS, TSU-UDS 6. Joint research project between DFKI’s IWI and GTU. 7. Grant # YS/38/6-210/12 for Training at Zaragoza University, Spain: The Program of Governmental Scientific Grants for Young Scientists – Research Training in World Scientific Centers. 8. 5 Georgian researchers attended International Conference in Rome (ICECECE 2012). WP3 – Mobility Overall, during the two years of GEO-RECAP project implementation 14 Georgian scientists have been supported with 25 Mobility Grants. "
AR/216/6-450/12 ( № 30/30)Obtaining a new type of functionally gradient polymer materials and optical elements based on them2012 State Scientific Grants Competition for Applied ResearchShota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia and Georgian Technical University 206400 ლარი22.04.2013 22.04.2015Levan Nadareishvili Nona Topuridze, Tariel Ebralidze, Ineza Pavlenishvili, Tamar Nakaidze, Barbara Kilosanidze, George Kakauridze H9 "The tasks to be implemented in the project are based on the concept we developed for the first time about the new structural state of thermoplastic (linear) polymers. We introduced the concept of the gradient of relative elongation (degree of stretching) and formulated ideas about a new physical characteristic of linear polymers - a new structural state - a gradient-oriented state. On the basis of the mentioned concept, a new technical solution for the structural modification of thermoplastic polymers was developed, which has no analogues. This is the orientation of linear polymers in the gradient mode, which was first realized by us on a polymer sample with inhomogeneous mechanical field modes. The gradient orientation method allows obtaining FGM by both known approaches - both by creating a chemical composition and a microstructure gradient, which is undoubtedly another positive sign of it. To solve the tasks planned in the project, the following main research methods were used: the method of gradient orientation of polymers; method of determining birefringence and dichroism; polarization sensitometry method; method of determining the diffraction efficiency of gratings; method of determining the change in the polarization state as a result of the transmiting of light through the samples; spectrometric method of research. The gradient orientation process is characterized by high repeatability. In contrast to elements based on polarization-sensitive materials, in which a gradient of birefringence is induced by actinic polarized beam, gradient-oriented optical elements will have very high stability, high values of birefringence and dichroism, as well as the ability to work in a wide spectral range (in particular, according to our preliminary data, in gradient-oriented polyvinyl alcohol samples the birefringence changes is within n  0 – 0.003). As a result of the implementation of the project, the following optical elements were obtained: 1. Pseudodepolarizers. Samples of depolarizers for a wide spectral range of laser radiation were obtained; 2. Phase wave plates and compensators. Samples of high-transmission achromatic compensators and wide-aperture wave plates were obtained on the basis of gradient materials. 3. GB -elements with gradient of birefringence. The technology of receiving high-efficiency reflective GB-elements with the established distribution of the birefringence were developed, on the basis of which the corresponding elements could be manufactured. 4. Diffraction gratings of anisotropic profile. The technology of obtaining diffraction gratings with any anisotropic profile (sinusoidal, parabolic and others) of the birefringence has been developed, which ensures high diffraction efficiency. Such elements work in a wide spectral range from near ultraviolet to infrared. 5. Elements with gradient dichroism (GD-Gradient Dichroism). Highly efficient GD-elements with given distribution of radial and tangential gradient of dichroism have been obtained. " "We have developed a new convenient polarimetric method for determining the distribution of birefringence and linear dichroism in samples of optical polymer materials, including gradient polymer materials, based on the ""C"" type polarization-holographic grating, by means of measuring the ratio of the intensities of the diffracted beams during the diffraction of the monochromatic light passing through the sample on the polarization-holographic grating. A theoretical model was developed and a laboratory model of the corresponding device was made. According to the theoretical model, it is possible to determine birefringence and linear dichroism separately: we used a light beam with a wavelength outside the absorption band for determining birefringence, and light beam with a wavelength located in the absorption band of the film chromophore is used for determining linear dichroism. Quantification of birefringence and linear dichroism distribution over the samples was carried out for samples with different gradient orientation modes. Different types of polarization optical elements were created based on stretched polymer films. Pseudo-depolarizers were obtained on the basis of polyvinyl alcohol films with a uniform distribution of the birefringence. We used 30 micron thick films with 100% uniform stretching at 900С and subsequent uniform cooling. For real-time determination of the Stokes parameters and the degree of polarization (DoP) of the light passing through the depolarizer samples, a device was developed based on the polarization-holographic element created by us. The dependence of the pseudo-depolarizer's ability to depolarize on the number of layers of uniformly stretched polymer films was determined (in the case of 6 layers, DoP ≈2%). Compensators were obtained on the basis of uniaxial, gradient oriented polymer films. In such films, the gradient of the birefringence is induced accordingly. When the birefringence value is reached, which corresponds to the difference between the ordinary and extraordinary rays equal to the whole number of wavelengths of the illuminating light, interference bands appear in the film, which can be observed between the crossed polarizers. On the basis of a uniaxially oriented polymer film, polymer analogs of λ/4 and λ/2 wave phase plates were created. Areas of film were used such that these samples gave a phase difference of π/2 for light with wavelengths of 635 nm, 532 nm, and 473 nm. Areas of films were also selected that gave a phase difference π at the same wavelengths. These wavelengths were chosen as the common wavelengths of lasers. A comparison of the quality of our received and factory phase plates has been made and a good coincidence of quality has been obtained. More over some phase plates received by us have better characteristics compared to the factory ones. To obtain reflective elements with gradient of dichroism and birefringence, we used oriented polyvinyl films of appropriate thickness, linear dichroism and birefringence values, which were placed on the surface of a special metallized, reflective polymer film. In this way, dichroid reflective half-wave and quarter-wave phase plates, as well as a reflective compensator with gradient distribution of the birefringence were obtained. Stable and dynamic diffraction gratings with anisotropic profile were recorded in a liquid polymerizable material by means of an ultrasound standing wave and their characteristics were determined. The creation of polarization optical elements based on stretched polymer films creates the prospect of replacing expensive crystalline small-aperture polarization optical elements with inexpensive polymer film elements of any large aperture. " "1. Optical isotropic polymer films are obtained. 2. Gradient deformation of polymer films was carried out. 3. The relationship was established between the quantitative dependence of birefringence and dichroism distribution on the chemical structure of polymer films and the mode of gradient orientation (relative elongation, temperature, deformation rate). 4. Optical elements (pseudodepolarizers, phase wave plates, compensators, elements with gradient of dichroism and birefringence, diffraction grating of anisotropic profile) were created on the basis of gradient materials. 5. The diffraction efficiency of the diffraction gratings was determined and the polarization state of diffracted beams was controlled. 6. A gradient orientation device was designed and manufactured in zone heating mode. 7. A thermal camera and a set of clamps were made for the P-5 stretching machine. 8. A polarization-holographic photometric device was made for determining the polarization characteristics of optical materials. 9. 3 scientific articles have been published; participation in an International conference. "
FR/466/4-103/11Digital image segmentation and segmented image description2011 competition of state scientific grants for fundamental researchShota Rustaveli National Scientific Foundation80000 ლარი26.03.2012– 26.03.2014Otar Tavdishvili Tamaz Sulaberidze, Tea Todua "The methods of digital image processing and analysis play a significant role in the information systems (image perception and machine vision), in medical diagnostics, in agriculture which concern to automatic analysis of terrain peculiarity, in cartography and generally in scene analysis. Using of such methods often presents the first stage for the objects automatic classification systems. The strategic goal of the investigation is development of modern automated digital image segmentation method and description of segments’ shape on the obtained segmented image. In particular, possibility to operate with each isolated segment independently, compact description of segmented image on the bases of description of isolated segment’s shape using new interpolation formulae of random fields (Whittaker-Kotelnikoff-Shannon formulae). Corresponding computational algorithms and programs will be developed. In the presented project, the research object was a digital image. " "The strategic goal of the investigation is development of modern automated digital image segmentation method and description of segments’ shape on the obtained segmented image. In particular, possibility to operate with each isolated segment independently, compact description of segmented image on the bases of description of isolated segment’s shape using new interpolation formulae of random fields (Whittaker-Kotelnikoff-Shannon formulae). Corresponding computational algorithms and programs will be developed. Objectives that we are going to consider and solve are following: 1. Analysis of the latest methods of digital image segmentation; 2. Development of digital image feature space clustering method based on non-parametric estimation of unknown probability density function; 3. Development of computer program based on the computational algorithm of the clustering method; 4. Development of modern digital image segmentation method based on the clustering; 5. Development of computational algorithm for the segmentation method; 6. Development of computer program based on the computational algorithm of the segmentation method and its testing on test images; 7. Development of computational algorithm and computer program for isolated segment shape description based on new interpolation formulae of random fields (Whittaker- Kotelnikoff-Shannon formulae). " "As a result of the implementation of the project, the following results were achieved: 1. A new automated method of digital image segmentation has been developed, which allows us to segment the image in real time and work independently with each segment; 2. An appropriate computing algorithm and computer program have been developed; 3. An appropriate computational algorithm and computer program have been developed for the compact description of the shape of a single segment on a segmented image using new interpolation formulae of random processes and fields. The obtained results can be used in information systems (image perception and machine vision), medical diagnostics, agricultural tasks related to automatic analysis of location features, cartography and general scene analysis tasks. "
№GNSF/ST06/4-080Optical, relaxation and transport processes in semiconductor nanostructuresFundamental Research grantGeorgian National Science Foundation100000 ლარი14.11.2006–14.11.2008Cicishvili Elene Cicishvili Elene, Msvelidze Genri, Gogolin Oleg, Janelidze Rusiko, Bakradze Otar, Edilashvili Vakhtang This project was devoted firstly to the fabrication of novel nanostructures of the semiconductor compounds QDs with controlled properties in host network structures. Secondly, we suppose to perform a set of experimental studies on both the first time obtained structures and previously fabricated samples. Our experimental observations will be concentrated mainly on investigations of the optical properties, transport and photoelectrical features of AIBVII and AIIBVI semiconductor compounds QDs embedded in a various host network structures. The impact of size and temperature will be studied. Experimental attempts will be supported theoretically. Besides we offer independent theoretical studies of some phenomena in low-dimensional semiconductor structures. In particular, the energy relaxation and the spin decoherence in QDs and semimagnetic QWs, birefringence effect in QWRs, exchange interaction in self-assembled QDs , and magneto-optical features of layer nano-structeres containing ultra-thin magnetic films will be addressed. (1) Growth of novel nanostructures containing semiconductor QDs from indirect band-gap AgCl and AgBr compounds in a silica host matrix (based on our experience with CuI and AgI QDs: (see G.Mshvelidze et al, Physica Status Solidi (b), 207, 369, (1998); O.Gogolin et al, Physical Review B, 62, 13053, (2000)); optimization of the growth processes. (2) Optimization of AIIBVI (CdS, CdSe) and AIBVII (CuCl, CuBr, AgI, and CuI) QDs growth processes (control of composition, size and area density of QDs in the structure) (3) Structural characterization of the nano-structures samples by microscopic, optical and electrical methods, giving feedback to the growth optimization (4) Investigation of the optical properties in the new developed structures (AgBr and AgCl QDs); determination of the electronic states and their correlation to the structural data (5) Investigation of electrical properties of a host matrix with embedded QDs and their correlation with the growth conditions, nucleation processes, ions mobility etc. Measurements of spectral photoelectric response in thin semiconductor films from AIBVII compounds. (6) Investigation of temperature behaviour of the optical spectra of the AIBVII QDs in a wide temperature interval (4K – 800K), study the phase transitions in these structures, including the super-ionic transition in AgI QDs in dependence on dot sizes (7) Determination of the basic specific-material parameters (like effective masses and temperature dependence of the fundamental energy gap (still unknown for AgBr ) ) based on the developed method: from quantum confinement to bulk band parameters (8) Theoretical study of magneto-optical properties of layer nano-structeres containing ultra-thin magnetic films and developing of new ellipsometric method for measurements of different fundamental magneto-optical constants in the one experiment (9) Theoretical study of optical anisotropy in nano-wires made from cubic semiconductor crystals (based on the developed method), dependence on the wire and light orientation; (10) Theoretical investigation of the lattice mismatch effects on the fine structure of the exciton levels in nonspherical quantum dots (based on the developed method. (11) Theoretical investigation of the phonon-induced exciton-spin decoherence in a single QD. 1. Development of the method for the growth of QDs with high volatile ingredients in a hard matrix; fabrication of novel structures with AgBr and AgCl QDs 2. Structural characterization of obtained structures and determination of the temperature coefficient of the band gap dEg(T)/dT for AgBr crystals 3. Observation of an enhancement of the excitonic effects and an of the light emission in QDs of indirect-gap semiconductors as compared to bulk crystals 4. Fabrication of monophase CuI QDs 5. Clearing of the problem of an unusual behavior of the band gap Eg(T) with temperature in AgI QDs and bulk crystals. 6. Determination of the impact of size of QDs on the band gap Eg(T) in CuBr, CuCl and AgI QDs; the electron-phonon renormalization effects on the band gap in these materials from quantum confined to bulk case 7. Determination of the excitonic spectra and structural phase transitions in CuBr, CuCl and AgI QDs in a wide temperature range - from cryogenic to 800K 8. Development of optical method for determination of the energy spectrum parameters from quantum confinement to bulk case 9. Application of the conductivity measurements in doped host matrix to the rough characterization and selection of samples (with respect to an average size of dots ) as an alternative to the expensive TEM investigation 10. Analytical description of optical anisotropy in a single semiconductor nanowire and the birefringence effect in a structure of a high density of nanowires in dependence on the wire orientation and diameter, the light direction, and the average volume density, respectively. Obtained theoretical predictions can serve as recommendations at manufacturing of new photonic metamaterials 11. Exchange splittings of the exciton levels in nonspherical quantum dots. Discussion on a dependence of the singlet-triplet splitting on the dot size and the lattice mismatch degree with respect to a change of its sign 12. Analytical expression for the polarization decay time T1 and decoherence time T2 in single semiconductor quantum dot in dependence on the dot size, temperature, and material constants. Discussion of different material systems with respect to their suitability for spin storage. 13. Theory of intrinsic mechanism of the exciton-spin relaxation assisted by acoustic phonons in semimagnetic quantum wells; dependence of the spin-relaxation on the magnetic field and temperature. Discussion of this mechanism with respect to its efficiency in semimagnetic structures of different materials as compared to the sp-d exchange interaction-induced relaxation mechanism. 14. Theory of magneto-optical ellipse-metry in thin films
№ GNSF–021Development of the technologies of production of the glass fiber elements and study of their characteristicsFundamental Research grantGeorgian National Science Foundation115821 ლარი2006-2009Rafael Txinvaleli Jumber Nakaidze, Shaliko Gvatua, Blagidze Eugene, Tamar Nakaidze, Tamar Giunashvili The development of a new composite material, cheap, resistant to high temperature, thermal- and electric-conductive, mechanically strong and non-soaked with a melted mass of the galas is proposed. On the basis of this material, the design of glass form devices and some critical elements as well as a technological schedule is proposed. The aim of the Project is to develop new low cost and high quality technologies of glass fiber elements production. In particular, such elements are the basalt continuous fibers and active optical fibers. The possibility of the old optical articles replacement with the proposed new ones is shown by the Project. "The implementation of the project was based on solving the following tasks: -Preparation and research of multicomponent phosphate glass doped with rare earth ions with different concentrations. Obtaining an optical fiber from the selected glass; -- Research of various materials and technologies adopted by us. Study of the processes arising at the contact between the working surface and the molten glass mass. Selection of conditions in which the working surface is not wetted by the mass of molten glass. Study of temperature resistance, thermal and electrical conductivity and mechanical properties of these materials; - Creation of basalt continuous fiber and active fiber light carrier with laser effect through our new technology and improvement of this technology. Development of new cheap and high-quality technology; - Research of physical and optical properties of sample-products. Fabrication of some optical elements with the new technology and demonstration of the possibility of replacing existing elements with these elements. " "1. A new type of molding equipment has been developed, the working surface of which is not wetted by the mass of molten glass, and therefore the quality of the product, including basalt fiber and AOF, has improved dramatically. 2. A new cheap technological regulation of basalt fiber has been developed. 3. On the basis of multi-component phosphate glass doped with rare earth ions, a new type of AOF is created, which can be effectively used as a fiber laser OFARs for OFTSs. "
GRANT/ST 09_270_3-105 (# 1-3/91)Unification, free agebras and projectivity in the varieties with residooms GNSF grant in mathematicsRevaz Grigolia146454 ლარი2010-2012Revaz Grigolia, Ramaz Lipartelianim Tatiana Kiseliova, Roland Omanadze This project is devoted to full charac-terization of finitely gen-erated proj-ective MV-algebras and investigation of unification problem for subvarieties of MV-algebras, Boolean algebras with two closure operators; characterize projective algebras and corresponding to them projective formulas; establish one-to-one correspondence between projective formulas and projective subalgebras of free algebras in corresponding varieties. This project is devoted to full charac-terization of finitely gen-erated proj-ective MV-algebras and investigation of unification problem for subvarieties of MV-algebras, Boolean algebras with two closure operators; characterize projective algebras and corresponding to them projective formulas; establish one-to-one correspondence between projective formulas and projective subalgebras of free algebras in corresponding varieties. It is characterized finetly generated projective MV-algebras. It is given nessery and suffisient conditions to be projective algebra. The unification problem is studed. "It is characterized finetly generated projective MV-algebras. It is given nessery and suffisient conditions to be projective algebra. The unification problem is studed in different subvarieties of the variety of MV-algebras. Characterization one-generated projective MV-algebras through McNaughton functions. A description of n-gene-rated free SD* -algebras. Characterization n-gene-rated projective MV-algeb-ras through McNaughton functions. Characterization of finitely generated projective SD*-algebras. It is established one-to-one correspondence between projective formulas and finitely generated projective subalgebras of finitely generated free SD*–algebras generated free perfect algebras in the class of all perfect MV-algebras. An unification type of bi-modal logical system LinT Grz. "
FR/299/6-110/142014 Call for Fundamental Research State GrantsShota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia115170 ლარი 05/05/2015 – 05/05/2018E. Khalvashi E. Khalvashi, N. Fokina, M. Elizbarashvili The investigation of spin relaxation and dynamics in strongly anisotropic materials (in KCuF3 anisotropy is caused by the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction, in La1-xMexMnO3 also the crystal field interaction contributes to it) was carried out, resulting in analytical and graphical angular and temperature dependencies of the electron paramagnetic resonance linewidth and zero-field relaxation rates measurable in Gorter type experiments, all of the above giving good agreement with the experimental data. The investigation of spin relaxation and dynamics was also fulfilled in the materials with spin-triplet states, for the separate transitions of which the tensor of the dynamic susceptibility (which describes well the experimental angular dependence in photoexcited pure NaNO2) and the rates of the spin-lattice relaxation were obtained, using our original analytic technique The aim of the project was to study spin relaxation and dynamics in strongly anisotropic materials La1-xMexMnO3 (where Me = Ca, Pb, Sr; x is the Me doping), which are characterized by technologically interesting colossal magnetoresistance properties, and also in the magnetically quasi one-dimensional materials, such as KCuF3 (with Cu2+ magnetic ions). In KCuF3 crystal Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya (DM) interaction causes anisotropic properties of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The one-dimensionality brings about the short range spin correlations surviving to room and higher temperatures. These correlations have been taken into account during the analytical calculation by Kubo-Tomita method of the EPR linewidth and of the resonance field. The anisotropic zero-field relaxation rates (RRs) measurable in the Gorter type experiments and their connection with the EPR linewidth have been obtained. The temperature and angular dependencies plotted according our analytical formulas were in a good agreement with the experiments in KCuF3. In contrast to KCuF3, for lanthanum manganites we have supposed that the EPR broadening is caused by the spin-lattice relaxation (SLR) of the anisotropic interaction via the one-phonon mechanism. The angular and temperature dependencies of the EPR linewidth in the weak constant field and of the zero-field RRs measurable by the Gorter type experiments were analytically investigated when the anisotropic interaction includes the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya and the crystal field interactions. It was shown, that the EPR linewidth at the constant field direction along any crystal axis is equal to the half sum of the zero-field RRs for the two other crystal axes. The obtained results have been successfully used for the interpretation of the EPR experimental results in La0.9Sr0.1MnO3 and La0.875Sr0.125MnO3 single crystals. The compounds with spin-triplet states (STSs) were also the objectives of the project. These materials find wide application in science and technology. Therefore, the investigation of the STS interaction with the lattice is of the great importance. We have suggested the low-frequency method, which enables the measurement of the longitudinal RRs at the STS separate transitions in the Gorter type experiments, where the STS level crossing is provided by the appropriate choice of the constant magnetic field value. It should be mentioned that this method needs only low-frequency equipment and does not need an EPR spectrometer. Using the formalism of the single transition operators and our original analytical technique, we derived the equations of motion for the magnetization components of the separate STS transitions of a single crystal under the action of the alternating and non-weak constant magnetic fields. We demonstrated that at the fulfillment of the definite condition, the free motion of the sample full magnetization after the excitation of one of the transitions is the precession at the frequency of the excited transition with an ellipse in the plane transverse to the constant field. At that, the squared absolute value of the magnetization vector contains the part, oscillating at the double frequency of the excited transition. The tensor of the dynamic susceptibility, reflecting the elliptical character of the magnetization precession at the steady state EPR, have been written at the creation of the resonance conditions for each of the STS transitions. The results of this calculation describe qualitatively the experimental angular dependence of the EPR spectra from the photoexcited triplet excitons in the pure NaNO2 single crystal. The rates of the one-phonon SLR have been obtained under conditions, when the spin system is described by a single spin temperature. The SLR rates of the separate transitions of the fine structure have been calculated at the same one-phonon mechanism. 1. The anisotropic zero-field relaxation rates measurable in the Gorter type experiments (zero-field RRs) were obtained analytically for magnetically quasi one-dimensional materials; their connection with the EPR linewidth was discussed. The analytics was done according to the Kubo-Tomita exchange narrowing theory with the subsequently accounted short-range spin correlations. Obtained angular dependencies agree quantitatively well with the experimental plots for KCuF3. 2. The analytical angular and temperature dependencies of the EPR linewidth, when its broadening is caused by the one-phonon mechanism of spin-lattice relaxation (SLR), and zero-field RRs were obtained for the La0.9Sr0.1MnO3 and La0.875Sr0.125MnO3 single crystals. It was shown that the EPR linewidth at the constant field direction along any crystal axis is equal to the half sum of the zero-field RRs for the two other crystal axes. The angular dependencies of the zero-field RRs and the EPR linewidth were presented graphically at the constant field continuous rotations in the three crystallographic planes of La0.9Sr0.1MnO3, proving this correlation for any rotation angles. 3. The low-frequency method was suggested, enabling the measurement of the longitudinal relaxation rates at the separate transitions of the spin-triplet states (STSs) in the Gorter type experiment, where the STS level crossing is provided by the appropriate choice of the constant magnetic field value. 4. Using the formalism of the single transition operators and our original analytical technique, we derived the equations of motion for the magnetization components of the separate STS transitions in a single crystal under the action of the alternating and the non-weak constant magnetic fields. The tensor of the dynamic susceptibility of the spin system (SS) to the microwave field was obtained at the creation of the resonance conditions for each STS transition. 5. The rates of the one-phonon SLR was obtained under conditions, when SS is described by a single spin temperature. At that, the possibility of the presence of the fast motion in the SS was provided for. The SLR rates of the separate transitions of the fine structure were calculated at the same one-phonon mechanism. 6. The above-mentioned results were reflected in the 5 papers published in the peer-reviewed journals.
STCU/GNSF # 6297Planning of facilities location and goods transportation in extreme situations.The Science and Technology Center in Ukraine and GNSF GNSF-UNTCGNSF-UNTC70000 აშშ დოლარი30/06/2017-30/11/2018G. Sirbiladze G. Sirbiladze, B. Ghvaberidze, B. Macaberidze, G. Bolotashvili, G. Mgeladze, Z. Modebadze The project aims to create an expert knowledge-based intelligent support system for the private or state organizations, which are interested in extreme and abnormal processes and provide optimal and safe management of supply needed for the civil and military objects in geographical areas, affected by disasters, earthquakes, fires and other accidents, weapons of mass destruction, terrorist attacks, etc.; for the organizations, which ensures quick assistance to the population in a safe way, recovery and location of information and telecommunications networks. As an alternative to the classical modeling, we create new approach - fuzzy facility location/transportation problem for extreme environment, in which we develop fuzzy methods and aggregations for formation and representing expert knowledge, which is the basis for the construction of high-value and high-credible intelligent technologies. The main product of the project will be intelligent support system for the distribution networks and emergency managers.
# 3-105Projectivity,unification and structurally completeness in the varieties of MV-algebras GNSF grant in mathematicsGNSF90 420 ლარი2008 - 2010Revaz Grigolia Revaz Grigolia, Ramaz Liparteliani, Tatiana Kiseliova This project is devoted to full characterization of finitely generated projective algebras, the signature of which are extension of MV-algebra signature, in these varieties and investigation of E-unification problem for subvarieties of these algebras, Boolean algebras with two closure operators. A new algebra - CmMVn-algebra is introduced, which is an MVn-algebra enriched with m unary operations, satisfying finite number of identities. The variety of CmMVn -algebras represents algebraic models of the constructed logical system MmLn that is n-valued Lukasiewicz logic with additional m modal operators (3£ n∈ω). It is introduced a new logic LG and corresponding to them LG-algebras. 1) Axiomatization (by identities) the class of CmMVn-algebras, that gives a possibility to axiomatize logical system MmLn. 2) The representation theorem for CmMVn-algebras. This theorem gives a possibility to prove a completeness theorem for logical system MmLn that is very important for any logical systems. 3) A proof of a deduction theorem for MmLn. 4) A description of finitely generated free CmMVn–algebras, that is equivalent to the description of all non-equivalent formulas of fixed variables in logical system. 5) Characterization of projective CmMVn-algebras, that gives possibilities to establish what kind of balance there exists between derived and permissible rules.
STCU/GNSF 09/5015 (#547)Application of fuzzy logic with operators in the knowledge based systemsThe Science and Technology Center in Ukraine and GNSF GNSF-UNTCGNSF-UNTC69974 აშშ დოლარი2009 - 2011 Revaz Grigolia Revaz Grigolia, Ramaz Lipartelianim Tatiana Kiseliova, Viacheslav Meskhi Finding of a set of generating algebras of the special varieties that are subva-rieties MV-algebras and Goedel algebras and monadic Goedel algebras. Description of finitely generated free algebras and charcterization of finitely generated algebras. "It is given an axiomatic definition of the varieties and description of finetly generated free algebras and projective algebras over the corresponding varieties of algebras. More precisely. 1. Axiomatic definition and analysis of varieties of CmMVn-algebras; 2. Axiomatic definition and analysis of varieties of LG-algebras; 3. Analysis and characterization of MG- and MGn-algebras. " "An axiomatiization of the varieties and description of finetly generated free alge-bras and projective algebras over the corresponding vari-eties of algebras are given. Theorem: There are only only m(d[n-1]-1)+1 non-isomorphic subdirectly irreducible algebras in the variety CmMVn Representation Theorem: i) Any CmMVn-algebra A is isomorphic to a subdirect product of D0 and the algebras Di(j) (i=1,…,m; 2≤j-1Îdiv(n-1)). ii) Any finite CmMVn-algebra A is isomorphic to a direct product of D0 and the algebras Di(j) (i = 1,…,m; 2≤j-1Î div(n-1)). Theorem: The k-generated free algebra in the variety CnMVm is of the following form: F_(C_n MV_m ) (k)=D_0^(p(2,k))×∏_(j>2)^(j-1∈div(i-1))▒∏_(i=1)^n▒〖D_i (j)^(p(j,k)) 〗 "
GNSF/CNRS09/561Structural and computational properties of logicsGeorgian-France Bilateral GrantGeorgian National Science Foundation-French National Centre for Scientific Research (GNSF-CNRS)20000 ევრო01/03/2010 – 29/02/2012Revaz Grigolia Michel Parigot Revaz Grigolia, Ramaz Lipartelianim Tatiana Kiseliova, Roland Omanadze, David Gabelaia Both french and georgian participants of the project where given lectures in the “International Tbilisi Summer School in Logic and Language”, which was organised each year. In addition two workshops was organised, one in Paris and one in Tbilisi. The proposed research doesn't have immediate applications to industry, by it has very interesting potential applications to programming languages through the correspondence between proofs and programs. The investigated logical operators may correspond to unknown computational primitives of big interest. The description of free and projective algebras in the variety of perfect MV-algebras are given.
GRANT/ST 09_270_3-105 (# 1-3/91)Unification, free agebras and projectivity in the varieties with residooms GNSF grant in mathematicsGeorgian National Science Foundation146454 ლარი01/03/2010 – 28/02/2013Revaz GrigoliaRevaz Grigolia, Ramaz Lipartelianim Tatiana Kiseliova, Roland Omanadze It is characterized finitely generated projective MV-algebras. It is given necessary and sufficient conditions to be projective algebra. The unification problem is studied. This project is devoted to full characterization of finitely generated projective MV-algebras and investigation of unification problem for subvarieties of MV-algebras, Boolean algebras with two closure operators; characterize projective algebras and corresponding to them projective formulas; establish one-to-one correspondence between projective formulas and projective subalgebras of free algebras in corresponding varieties. It is characterized finetly generated projective MV-algebras. It is given nessery and suffisient conditions to be projective algebra. The unification problem is studed in different subvarieties of the variety of MV-algebras. Characterization n-generated projective MV-algebras through McNaughton functions. A description of n-generated free SD*-algebras. Characterization of finitely generated projective SD*-algebras. It is established one-to-one correspondence between projective formulas and finitely generated projective subalgebras of finitely generated free SD*–algebras. An unification type of bi-modal logical system LinT Grz is established.
GNSF/CNRS № 09/09Structural and computational properties of logics IIGeorgian-France Bilateral GrantGeorgian National Science Foundation-French National Centre for Scientific Research (GNSF-CNRS)30000 ევრო01/03/2012 – 28/02/2014Revaz Grigolia Michel Parigot Revaz Grigolia, David Gabelaia, Ramaz Lipartelianim Tatiana Kiseliova, Roland Omanadze The aim of this project is to clarify the rel-ation between these different abstract proof representations aiming at an algebraic theory of proofs. These compa-risons are of fundamental importance for clearing up the general picture of the existing and of future similarity and identity criteria of formal proofs. In addition, they are also of considerable practical interest, as improved proof presentations will lead to more efficient algorithms that search for and manipulate proofs and will also improve the readability of formal proofs. "This part of the project is devoted to the description of finitely generated MV(C)-algebras, find a full characterization of finitely generated projective MV(C)-algebras and investigate the E-unification problem for this variety of MV-algebras. In that way we will give a solution of unification problems for the logic L, corresponding to the variety of all MV(C)-algebras. Let us note that the unification problem plays important role in automated deduction theorem. We will emphasize the investigation of E-unification problem in these classes, description of finitely generated free algebras and characterization of projective subalgebras with comparison the ones with projective formulas which have close connection with unification problem. Given a set of equational axioms and two terms containing function symbols and variables, the equational unification problem is to find a uniform replacement of terms for the variables that makes the terms provably equal from the axioms. The classical unification problem is: given two terms containing function symbols and variables, find a uniform replacement of terms for the variables that makes the two terms syntactically identical. Equational unification, or E¬-unification, extends the classical problem to solving an equation in an equational theory." It is proved that 1-gene-rated free MV(C)-algebra F (1) is isomorphic to the algebra C 2 (where C is Chang algebra) with free generator (c,Øc). This result is generalized for any natural number m. A description and characterization of m generated free and projective algebras. It is proved that the unification type of the variety of MV(C) -algebras is unitary.
INTAS 2005-1000008-7805Singularities, bifurcations and monodromyIC-INTAS - International Association for the promotion of cooperation with scientists from the independent states of the former Soviet Union (INTAS)IC-INTAS - International Association for the promotion of cooperation with scientists from the independent states of the former Soviet Union (INTAS)150 000 ევრო01/10/2006-30/09/2008D. Siersma D.Siersma, V. Vassiliev, S. Gusein-Zade, V. Zakalyukin, V. Kulikov, G. Khimshiashvili, G. Giorgadze, W. Ebeling, J. Brasselet, V. Goryunov, A. Campillo, S. Janeczko The aim of the project was a wide range of research in the Singularity Theory, study of bifurcations and monodromy. "The aim of the project was a wide range of research in the Singularity Theory, study of bifurcations and monodromy. These fields are closely adjacent to a number of various problems of calculus, algebraic geometry, topology. Singularity Theory benefited a lot from using methods of calculus, algebraic geometry, topology, and also influenced researches in these traditional fields of mathematics. Singularity Theory and its applications traditionally developed within two-way influence and cooperation between the West European and fSU groups of researches. In this an important role was played by the European Singularity Network and by three INTAS Projects: Investigations in singularity theory (94-4373, 1995-1997) and Topology and analysis of discriminant sets (96-0713, 1997-1999), Singularity Theory and Bifurcations (00-0259, 2001- 2003). All three INTAS Projects were coordinated by the coordinator of this Project Prof.Dr. D.Siersma. He also played an important role in the coordination of the European Singularity Network. In frames of those Projects and of the Network there were elaborated a number of problems in Singularity Theory and in Bifurcation Theory, there were obtained a number of new results (more than 300 papers were published or accepted for publication in framework of the INTAS Projects; many of them are joint papers of fSU and Western participants, prepared in the framework of the Projects) and there was created a good scientific environment for further cooperation between West European and fSU groups of researchers. The groups involved in the Project include the majority of active researchers in the Singularity Theory from the fSU and from West and Central Europe. This Project brings together 5 research teams from the fSU: Independent Univ. of Moscow, Mathematics Colledge (Russia, Moscow), 6 members, team leader V.A.Vassiliev; Moscow State Univ. (Russia), Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, 7 members, team leader S.M.Gusein-Zade; Moscow Aviation Inst. (Russia), 8 members, team leader V.M.Zakalyukin; Steklov Mathematical Inst. (Russia, Moscow), 5 members, team leader Vik.S.Kulikov; Georgian Academy of Sciences, A.Razmadze Mathematical Inst. (Georgia), 5 members, team leader G.N.Khimshiashvili; - and 6 research teams from INTAS countries: The Netherlands, Univ. Utrecht, Mathematisch Inst., 9 members, team leader, the Coordinator of the Project D.Siersma; Germany, Univ. of Hannover, 9 members, team leader W.Ebeling; France, Marseille-Nice-Strasbourg Univ., 9 members, team leader J.P. Brasselet; Great Britain, Univ. of Liverpool, 9 members, team leader V.Goryunov; Spain, Univ. of Valladolid, 12 members, team leader A.Campillo; Poland, Inst. of Mathematics, Warsaw, 8 members, team leader S.Janeczko. " In frames of this Projects were elaborated a number of problems in Singularity Theory and in the Bifurcation Theory.
სესფ გრ. N 3–174Lie algebras and singularity theoryCall for GNSF grantsShota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia/2008-2009G. Khimshiashvili G. Khimshiashvili, G. Giorgadze The aim of this project was to investigate the Fuchsian differential equations of Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov type associated with root systems of semisimple Lie algebras, structural theory of semisimple W-algebras, and solvable Lie algebras associated with isolated hypersurface singularities. "A number of interesting classification problems emerged in the framework of the structural theory of semisimple W-algebras. We classified all nilpotent orbits of exceptional type in simple Lie algebras. Concerning Lie algebras of isolated singularities, the most fundamental problem was to find out to which extent does the Lie algebra of a hypersurface singularity determine the analytical or topogical type of the singularity in question. Our previous research revealed several natural classes of singularities for which the Lie algebra determines the analytical type of singularity and suggested a general conjecture that this holds for the so-called fewnomial singularities where the number of monomials in the equation of singularity is equal to the number of variables. This conjecture was confirmed for binomial singularities and Pham singularities, and our aim was to extend it to isolated singularities defined by trinomials in three variables. A similar problem emerges with regard to topological equivalence of singularities and the second direction of our research was to investigate if the Lie algebra of a plane curve singularity determines its topological type. " "1. Explicit description of Lie algebras (computation of natural bases and structural constants) of unimodal singularities and isolated hypersurface singularities defined by trinomials was obtained. 2. Basic invariants (dimension, index, Poincare polynomial) for Lie algebras of quasihomogeneous isolated hypersurface singularities in terms of Newton diagrams were determined "
სესფ გრ.N 1-3/85Elliptic systems on Riemann surfaces and its applicationsCall for GNSF grantsShota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia100000 ლარი10/01/2010 - 10/01/2012G. Giorgadze G. Akhalaia, G. Giorgadze, V. Jikia, N. Kaldani, G. Makatsaria, N. Manjavidze, E. Gordadze "The aim of the project was systematic investigation of Elliptic systems on Riemann surface and to receive new results from the theory of generalized analytic functions and vectors. " The aim of the project was systematic investigation of Elliptic systems on Riemann surface and receiving new results from the theory of generalized analytic functions and vectors. Complete analysis of the boundary value problem of linear conjugation and Riemann-Hilbert monodromy problem for the Carleman-Bers-Vekua irregular systems was obtained. We got detailed analysis pseudo-analytic functions theory point of view Beltrami and holomorphic disc equations and proved the equivalence these equations. We investigated relation between the holomorphic and conformal structures and induced from conformal structures spaces of generalized analytic. We have explained relation between Riemann-Hilbert monodromy and Riemann-Hilbert boundary problems and obtained one sufficient condition of solvability of the Riemann-Hilbert problem on the Riemann sphere in terms of partial indices corresponding to a piecewise continuous matrix function. "1.Obtined the Complete analysis of the boundary value problem of linear conjugation and Riemann-Hilbert monodromy problem for the Carleman-Bers-Vekua irregular systems; 2. Obtained the detailed analysis pseudo-analytic functions theory point of view Beltrami and holomorphic disc equations; 3. Obtined the relation between the holomorphic and conformal structures. "
STCU 5622Monodromic quantum computationThe Science and Technology Center in Ukraine and GNSF GNSF-UNTCGNSF-UNTC70 000 აშშ დოლარი01.09.2012_ 31.08.2014 G. Giorgadze G. Giorgadze, M. Jibladze The aim of the project was to investigate a system of one three-level atom and one mode of the electromagnetic field. We considered a single atom from the system of identical non-overlapping atoms coupled to the one and two-mode electromagnetic quantum fields. Each atom was assumed to have only three levels, either |1 >, |2 > and |3 > and under the following conditions: (i) all the atom-photon interactions are electric dipole or electric quadrupole nature; (ii) only three atomic levels are included in the interaction; (iii) one or two quantized laser modes interact with this three-level system; (iv) each of these modes interacts with only one couple of levels; (v) so, from three possible couples of levels, only two of them interact directly. Levels of the third couple interact only by means of an intermediate level. For the three-level problem with complex controls was obtained theorem for optimal control.
FR/59/5-103/13Geometry of restricted discrete configurations in Euclidean space 2013 Call for Fundamental Research State GrantsShota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia.100000 ლარი2014-2016G. Khimshiashvili G. Khimshiashvili, G. Giorgadze The aim of the project was to investigate of several typical and practically important problems involving constrained configurations of points in Euclidean spaces. Investigation of discrete configurations of points satisfying certain constraints is inevitable in many problems of geometry, physics, approximation theory, image recognition, mechanics and robot engineering, complex analysis. Discrete configurations in Euclidean spaces being interesting by themselves in many problems of computational geometry and mechanics, play nowadays a continuously increasing role in various discretization, approximation and optimization problems. The constraints imposed on discrete configurations in Euclidean spaces can often be expressed in terms of Euclidean distances between the points, which gives a natural link with the theory of quadratic mappings and enables one to use highly developed effective methods of real algebraic geometry. The main aim of the project was to formulate as investigation of several typical and practically important problems involving constrained configurations of points in Euclidean spaces. Special attention was on the methods of establishing rigidity of configurations subject to prescribed constraints of combinatorial, metric or analytic type, combinatorial structure of extremal configurations for various geometrically and physically significant target functions, holomorphic invariants of discrete configurations on the Riemann sphere. There is good evidence that the topics and methods envisaged in the project will lead to substantial progress in several important problems and yield new perspectives in studying discrete configurations in Euclidean spaces and their applications. "In the framework of project was obtained the following results: 1. The spectral sequence and algorithm for computing homology groups of intersections of quadrics; 2. Explicit formulae for the splitting type of the canonical extension of holomorphic vector bundle; 3. Explicit formulae for the number of extremal configurations of polygonal linkage for polynomial target functions; 4. Criterion of rigidity of Okubo type system; Poncelet dichotomy for quadrilateral linkage; 5. Proof of Atiyah’s conjecture for planar quadrilateral linkages; 6. Explicit formulae for the number of stable configurations of tensegrity linkage. "
RF17_96Riemann-Hilbert problems on Riemann surfaces and invariants of holomorphic bundles2016 Call for Fundamental Research State GrantsShota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia.210 000 ლარი20/12/017-30/08/2021G. Giorgadze G. Giorgadze, G. Gulaghashvili, V. Jikia, N. Manjavidze, G. Makatsaria The object of this project was the traditional theme of the world-famous Georgian mathematical school, which was started by N. Muskhelishvili and I. Vekua and concerned two central problems of complex analysis: the Riemann-Hilbert boundary value problem and the Riemann-Hilbert monodromic problem for analytic and generalized classes of functions. "The project included the study of two classical problems of complex analysis, the Riemann-Hilbert boundary value problem and the monodromic Riemann-Hilbert problem, due to their versatile applications in related fields. The problem of constructing systems of differential equations on the complex plane with its singular points and monodromy, this problem is known as the Riemann-Hilbert monodromic problem. Riemann posed it in one of his unfinished works and indicated the way to solve it by means of an auxiliary boundary value problem (Riemann-Hilbert boundary value problem). In the following years (at the beginning of the 20th century), Hilbert included the Riemann monodromic problem in the list of his famous problems and in the scientific literature, it’s also referred as Hilbert's 21st problem. To solve this problem, J. Plemel followed Riemann's scheme, he first showed the existence of a solution to the boundary value problem for a region by region constant matrix function by reducing it to a continuous boundary value problem, And then to solve the monodromy problem for the system of regular equations. However, the question of the existence of such a system for systems of equations of the Fuchsian class remained unresolved. Hilbert's 21st problem was finally solved in 1989. But the class of problems related to the boundary value problem remained open, including the open problem of finding the analytical solution of the matrix boundary value problem, and there is no satisfactory numerical method for solving the boundary value problem, which is caused by the instability of private indices of the problem and others. To analyze and partially solve these general problems, the study of the following issues was singled out and the following main provisions were approved: 1. Study of correct and incorrect problems of elliptic systems with singularities. 2. Relations between the solution spaces of the matrix Carleman-Bers-Vekua and matrix Beltram equations. 3. Determining the structure of the solution space of the system of irregular matrix Carleman-Bers-Vekua equations, analogous to Dolbo's cohomology, monodromy theorem. 4. Construction of second and fourth order Fuchsian systems with monodromy matrices, stable, semi-stable (according to Mumford) vector vibrations on high-order Riemann surfaces and the criterion for solving the monodromic problem (establishing a connection). 5. Obtaining the solvability criterion of the boundary value problem in quadratics. 6. The statement was proved: the boundary value problem is always reduced to a system of regular differential equations with one imaginary singular point and vice versa. 7. Riemann-Hilbert boundary value problem for matrix elliptic systems, area-by-area continuous constant matrix function factorization, determination of the relationship between the Riemann-Hilbert monodromic problem's solvability condition and the matrix Beltram equation. 8. It was proved that the monodromic problem is solvable if and only if the corresponding vector fibration has a global holomorphic intersection " "The type of splitting of a holomorphic vector oscillation induced by a system of differential equations with regular singular points defined on the Riemann sphere coincides with the partial indices of the transfer matrix. 2. The Carleman-Bers-Vekua equation with a convex point corresponds to the Beltrami equation, where the condition of ellipticity is violated at special points of the Carleman-Bers-Vekua equation. 3. The Riemann-Hilbert boundary value problem is reduced to the classical Riemann-Hilbert problem with respect to the deformed complex structure. In addition, the deformed complex structure is determined by the shift operator. "
101008140— H2020-MSCA-RISE-2020Effective Factorisation techniques for matrixfunctions: Developing theory, numerical methods and impactful applicationsHorizon 2020-MSCA-RISE-2020Euro Commission 1 821 600 ევრო01/09/2021-01/03/2026G.Michuris, G. Giorgadze G.Michuris, G. Giorgadze, l. Efremidze Investigation Wiener-Hopf and Riemann-Hilbert problems and related numerical techniques to solve time dependent boundary value problems in complex discrete and continuous domains
№3307CRDFThe Georgian Reseatch and Development Foundation. 28000 აშშ დოლარი04.03.2003წ.– დან 18 თვეGuram Chilaya Guram Chilaia, Gia PetriaSvili, Andro ChaniSvili, Svetlana TavzaraSvili, Nugzar Macharasvili-GTU, Sophio Tsintsadze-TSU The aim of the Project was to study the photo-optics of liquid crystal blue phases (BPs) for the first time. Under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation conformation changes in photosensitive molecules are observed. These changes affect the macroscopic parameters of the liquid crystal, such as the structure period, the wavelength of the selective reflection, the phase transition temperatures, and the appearance of new phases. Among the liquid crystal phases, the blue phases are the most sensitive to external influences. The studies conducted in the Project have for the first time shown the effect of UV radiation on nanostructure parameters. The results of the study can be used in high-density optical data recording devices and in optically controlled lasers. Photosensitive and non-photosensitive LC components and optically active dopants were selected. Measurements were performed in traditional sandwich-type cells. A Specord M-40 spectrophotometer was used to measure the spectra. UV irradiation was carried out by a 100W Mercury lamp equipped with filters. Three types of experiments were performed. The first experiment. The mixture 60% ZhK440 + 40% CB-15 has the following phase sequence on cooling: I - BPII - BPI - BPS - Ch. The percentage ratio was selected experimentally to obtain the blue phases. In all studies using the optically active dopant CB-15, the CLC pitch did not change during irradiation. Only a change in the birefringence was observed. But in the BPs, a change in the position of the Bragg reflection peak took place. The second experiment. A mixture of 52% ZhK-440 + 48% CB-15 was prepared for studies of the exposure to UV. Concentrations of CB-15 were increased to obtain BPIII. The following phase sequence was obtained: I - BPIII - BPII - BPI - BPS - Ch. Then the cell whose temperature corresponded to BPI was irradiated (365 nm and 436 nm). UV irradiation caused first a shift in the Bragg reflection peak and then a phase transition from BPI to BPII. Subsequent irradiation resulted in a phase transition BPII - BPIII and finally - BPIII - I. When irradiated the BPS, an increase in the wavelength of the Bragg reflection was obtained. The effect is reversible: the wavelength of the Bragg reflection decreases when irradiated with violet (436 nm) light. The third experiment. Short-pitch liquid crystal states after irradiation have been studied. Induced phase transitions were obtained in blue phases. The characteristics of these induced blue phases were studied. For the first time in photosensitive liquid crystals, a change in the wavelength of the Bragg reflectance and the formation of scattering phases as a result of exposure to light was obtained.
№GG-50 ,,Ecological monitoring of biologically active antirachitic solar UV radiation and elaboration of the Georgian Academy of SciensesThe science and technology center in Ukraine 91945 ლარი01.04.2002–დან 36 თვეGuram Chilaya The main task of the Project was to create a solar radiation dosimeter based on liquid crystal matrices of solutions of vitamin D derivatives. Photo-induced changes in periodic structure of a cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) and, as a result, change in color due to ultraviolet radiation from the sun were used. By the method of adding the derivatives of vitamin D in liquid crystal matrices, a CLC was obtained, whose period provides selective reflection in the visible range of the spectrum (color). When irradiated with ultraviolet light, photo-transformation of the vitamin D derivatives is observed, resulting in a change in the color of the liquid crystal. Our first task was to obtain CLC structures with the required properties. In this case the following properties of the CLC structures were required: 1. The value of the spiral pitch must correspond to the visible range of the light spectrum. After adding provitamin D2 (ergosterol), the CLC pitch may increase or decrease (depending on the sign of the helix). It is therefore necessary to provide the change of the pitch from red to blue. 2. The above paragraph requires a high HTP of the OAD. But in different nematic matrices the same OAD has different HTP. In addition, HTP depends on temperature. For short pitch (visible spectrum) a high concentration of OAD is required, which can only be selected experimentally. 3. Transparency in the ultraviolet spectrum. 4. Chemical and photochemical stability. 5. Wide temperature range of nematic mesophase. It should also be taken into account that the temperature range of the mesophase changes considerably with increasing the OAD concentration. 6. Temperature independence of the spiral pitch. We studied the HTP of mixtures of nematics and OADs. Only nematics with the absorption spectrum in the ultraviolet range (200-290 nm) were selected. The following indicators of nematics and OADs were studied: 1) absorption spectra in the ultraviolet range; 2) HTP. More than 200 samples were examined. Mixtures with selective reflection in the visible range were then fabricated and their following characteristics were studied: 1) Influence of surface conditions and CLC orientation problems; 2) temperature ranges of the CLC phases; 3) temperature dependencies of selective reflection peaks (color). And finally provitamin D2 (ergosterol) was added to the CLC mixtures. Vitamin D2 is formed from ergosterol due to photo-transformation of the molecule during ultraviolet radiation. As a result, the spiral step changes in the reverse direction, i.e. returns to the initial (before exposure) position. This agrees with the data that provitamin D2 and vitamin D2 have the opposite signs of helix. The photosensitivity of the selected mixtures was measured at the last stage of the Project. Measurements were made using both an ultraviolet lamp and sunlight. Solar irradiation was carried out in May and summer in Georgia and southern Italy, when the solar radiation is maximum. The average radiation power when using the lamp was 0.1...0.5 mW/cm2. Layers of several microns thick cholesteric liquid crystalline mixtures containing vitamin D derivatives were developed. These layers were studied when exposed to solar and ultraviolet light. It was shown that after calibration the layers could be used as ultraviolet radiation dosimeters.
GEP 2-2648-TB-05 ,,Optically Switchable and Tunable Chiral Lasers Based on Cholesteric Liquid Crystals"CRDF grantCRDF 64000$ მ.შ. 52800 $=94512 ლარი კიბ. ინსტ. 11200$ –აშშ19.08.05წ. – 18 თვეGuram Chilaya Aronishidze Marina, ChaniSvili Andro,Chilaya Guram, Godibadze Bagrat-GTU, PetriaSvili Gia, Tavzarashvili Svetlana, Tevdorashvili Ketevan, Tsintsadze Sophio-GTU The project discusses the development of a cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) laser with a photo-stimulated tuning. Optical switching and rearrangement of chiral laser wavelengths was achieved by incorporating azo- and azoxy-compounds into the CLC mixtures. Under the influence of ultraviolet light, these compounds change their conformational and chiral properties, resulting in changes in the parameters of the CLC resonator and, consequently, the wavelength of the laser emission. Photosensitive and non-photosensitive CLC components and optically active additives were selected. All measurements were performed in traditional sandwich-type cells. The thickness of the CLC layer was 10...40 μm. An Avantes spectrometer was used to measure the spectra. UV irradiation was carried out by a 100 W Mercury lamp equipped with filters. Interference and wideband optical filters were used. As well, LEDs of 405nm and 466nm were used. The step of CLC depends on the wavelength and power of the ultraviolet light. The trans-form of the azooxy composition absorbs ultraviolet light and transits into the cis-form. The helical pitch decreases and the color of the layer changes from red to blue. This effect is reversible - the layer returns to its initial state as a result of irradiation with the wavelength above 420 nm. A selective reflectance peak shift of 160 nm was obtained. The use of LEDs has shown that a low power light source meets the needs of pitch adjustment. In the second part of the Project, laser radiation was received and studied. More than 20 laser dyes have been studied to obtain laser emission from the CLC layers. The CLC pitch was selected for use with Nitrogen (337 nm) and Nd:YAG (355 nm, third harmonic) lasers as pumping lasers. As a result, CLC laser wavelength tuning, which covered the entire visible range, was obtained. The tuning was performed by irradiation with LEDs in CLC mixtures of both azo- and azoxy-compounds. A photo-stimulated reversible wavelength tuning of emission from CLC lasers was obtained. The possibility of using low power light sources (LEDs) for the tuning is shown.
GNSF/ST07/3–-177Optical information recording in polymer stabilized photonic liquid crystals  Fundamental Research grantGeorgian National Science Foundation98 000 ლარი22.02.2008- 31.01.2010Chilaia Guram 1. Chilaia Guram 2. Petriashvili Gia 3. Aronishidze Marina 4. Tanzarashvili Svetlana 5. Tevdorashvili Ketevan 6. ChanishviliAndro A new principle of information recording in cholesterol liquid crystals (CLC) is proposed. This principle is based on the modulation of selective reflection by light action in a CLC layer. Because the CLC is a periodic structure whose period can be set from a few tens of nanometers to a few microns, the CLC layer can demonstrate selective reflection in the visible area. If the CLC is at the same time photosensitive to ultraviolet light, the selective reflection will become photo-controlled. The project shows that this principle can be used as a basis for optical recording of information. Non-photosensitive components were selected as part of photo-chemically and temperature stable CLC mixtures. Spectral characteristics of light absorption and transparency of these components were measured. Then photosensitive components were selected as part of chemically stable CLC mixtures. As a result, the components of photosensitive CLC mixtures were obtained for further studies. Photosensitive CLC mixtures were fabricated and studied. Mixtures with the required characteristics were selected from them. Such characteristics are: 1) selective reflection in the visible region and its independence on temperature, 2) the desired displacement of the maximum of the selective reflection as a result of exposure to UV light. The polarization plane rotation, linear and circular dichroism, refractive indices of photosensitive cholesterol mixtures were investigated and studied. The temperature intervals of the mesogenic phase of the selected substances and their stability to ultraviolet radiation were determined. Photopolymers were selected. The selected polymers are sensitive in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum (<330 nm), while in the near ultraviolet and visible region (> 340 nm) these polymers are transparent. The solubility of these polymers in liquid crystals was investigated. At the last stage of the Project, 10...20 μm thick polymer-stabilized CLC layers possessing optically controlled selective reflection were prepared. Optical information was recorded in these layers. Two types of structural photo-transformation were used: selective reflectance peak shift and phase transition "CLC - isotropic liquid". Gratings and other images were recorded using the template method using ultraviolet light. Optical information was recorded in CLC 10...20 μm thick layers with optically controlled selective reflection of. Two types of structural photo-transformation were used: selective reflection peak shift and phase transition "CLC - isotropic liquid". Gratings and other images were recorded with ultraviolet light using the mask method. The recorded information is read by visible light, the gratings are displayed in the form of colored stripes.
№GNSF/ST07/6-222Liquid crystal laser for optical devices of cancer early diagnosticsFundamental Research grantGeorgian National Scientific Center98 000 ლარი04.03.2008- 31.01.2010Chilaia Guram 1.Guram Chilaia 2.Gia Petriashvili 3 Andro Chanishvili 4Marina Aronishidze 5 Svetlana Tavzarashvili 6 Qetevan Tevdorashvili A laser light source for optical instruments for early diagnosis of oncologic diseases is proposed. The light source represents a set of liquid crystal laser modules pumped with a single Nitrogen laser. Each laser module is designed for a single wavelength of emission, is easy to manufacture, and inexpensive. The arrangement covers the entire visible range and can be extended to both ultraviolet and infrared spectrum areas. The adjustment step depends on the specific task and can be less than a few nanometers. The laser operates in pulsed mode. Pulse duration is 10 ns, pulse power is about 1 kW. In the first stage, chemically, photochemically stable, with a wide temperature range, transparent to the visible and ultraviolet region nematic matrices were selected to prepare the initial amount of cholesteric (CLC) mixtures. The long-wavelength limit of absorption of nematic liquid crystals is in the range of 200-290 nm. The temperature intervals of the mesogenic phase of the selected substances and their stability to ultraviolet radiation were determined. Optically active dopants were selected and studied. These dopants are characterized by sufficient helical twisting power and transparency in the required area of ​​the spectrum (visible and near ultraviolet). CLC mixtures that have a weak temperature dependence of the selective reflectance peak and the peak is located in the blue-green region of the spectrum were selected. A set of fluorescent dyes with soluble spectra in liquid crystals and overlapping spectra over the entire spectral range was selected. In luminescent dye doped CLCs, laser emission is obtained in the ultraviolet spectrum. The luminescent dye was selected so that its radiation was located in the ultraviolet region of the optical spectrum, and a cholesterol mixture was prepared to obtain the laser emission, the peak of selective reflection of which coincided with the emission maximum of this dye. The active medium was excited using a Nitrogen laser. In dye doped CLCs, laser radiation was obtained in the spectral area from violet to green. Pairs of fluorescent dyes were selected to obtain the Forster transfer. In the same way, the range from green to red was covered by the Forster transfer. Thus, a set of CTR lasers (31 CLC lasers in total) was fabricated, which covered the range of 370 nm - 690 nm with a step of 10 nm. A laser light source for optical instruments for early diagnosis of oncological diseases was designed. This light source represents a set of liquid crystal laser modules. The modules are pumped with a single Nitrogen laser. Each laser module is designed for a single wavelength, is easy to manufacture and inexpensive. We have made a demonstration model consisting of 31 CLC lasers. The tuning covers the entire visible range and can be extended to both ultraviolet and infrared spectrum areas. The step of tuning depends on the specific task and can be less than a few nanometers. The step of tuning in our demonstration model was 10 nm. The laser operates in pulsed mode. The pulse duration is 10 nm, the pulse power is about 1 k
№11/22Holographic laser with double distributed feedback Fundamental Research grantGeorgian National Science Foundation95800 ლარი26.03.2012–02.10.2014Andro Chanishvili 1.Chanishvili Andro 2.Chilaia Guram 3.Vardosanidze Zurab 4.Aronishidze Marina 5.Tavzarashvili Svetlana 6. Tevdorashvili Ketevan A new optical element that combines the properties of a laser and a dynamic hologram is designed. From the point of view of laser physics, this is a laser whose emission has a spatially modulated structure. From a holographic point of view, this is an active (radiant) hologram that generates a light wave that carries information about the recording (exciting) light wave The aim of the project was to create an optical element that represented both a laser and a hologram. The radiation of this element must be accompanied by information about the spatial distribution of the pumping beam field. To fulfil this condition, the pumping must be performed by the method used to record the hologram i.e. by two incoming coherent beams. We call the proposed laser hologram a holographic laser. Film dye lasers were chosen as the laser and simultaneously the holographic element. Two types of film lasers have been investigated: the polymer film lasers and the liquid crystal lasers. The film lasers were pumped with an interference image of the pumping laser radiation. Thus, as a result of the spatially-distributed pumping we obtained spatially-distributed laser emission of the film lasers. The parameters of the obtained laser emission were studied. The coherency of the emission was shown. 1) a matrix consisting of mutually-coherent micro-lasers is obtained; 2) the matrix is ​​a new type of laser that combines the properties of a laser and a hologram; 3) unlike known lasers, the emission pattern of this laser is spatially modulated like a diffraction pattern of a laser; 4) the spatial distribution of the radiation intensity contains information on the interference field of the pump, similar to the elementary hologram.
FR/217162Optical Information Recording Based on Photo-Modulation of Emission Property of Liquid CrystalFundamental Research grantGeoergian National Science Foundation205100 ლარი12.12.2016–12.12.2018Andro Chanishvili 1.Chanishvili Andro 2.Chilaia Guram 3.Vardosanidze Zurab 4.Tavzarahvili Svetlana 5. Tevdorashvili Ketevan 6. Batsilashvili Nini A new principle of information recording in luminescent dye-doped cholesterol liquid crystals (CLCs) is proposed. This principle is based on the spatial modulation of emission by the action of light in the CCT layer. In known cases, information is recorded by modulating one of the following optical parameters of the material: birefringence, absorption, selective reflection, or polarization plane rotation. In the proposed case, the material acts as an active environment (generates light) and the information is recorded by photo-modulation of radiation. The magnitude of the radiated light intensity was chosen as the modulating optical parameter. The implementation of the project was based on the solution of the following tasks: - obtaining light-controlled luminescent dye-doped CLC structures; - obtaining spatial photo-modulation of luminescent emission in these structures; - optical recording of information in the layers of the obtained structures in the form of diffraction gratings and other images. The optical, chemical and photochemical properties of various liquid crystalline and non-liquid crystalline substances were investigated. CLC mixtures with the necessary for the project tasks parameters were fabricated from the selected materials and their optical and photo-optical properties were studied. The optical properties of fluorescent dyes and their compatibility with selected photosensitive CLC mixtures were studied. Light sources were selected to excite these dyes. Dye doped CLC layers were irradiated with short-wavelength light through a mask. The light emission modulation was studied. In these layers, gratings recorded using the mask method. As a result of the project implementation, thin (10...40 μm) optically controlled luminescent CLC layers were obtained, in which optical information was recorded. Gratings and other images were recorded by exposure to ultraviolet light using the mask method. The recorded information is read by circularly polarized excitations by light, while the emission is non-polarized, i.e. the recorded information can be read without polarizers. In addition, the optical layer is completely dark when irradiated with light before recording (no light is emitted). After recording, when excited by light, the optical layer emits the recorded information. Thus, 1) the possibility to record optical information on the basis of spatial photo-modulation of light emission in luminescent dye doped thin CLC layers is shown; 2) a new principle of photo-control of luminescence is proposed; 3) thin CLC structures with light-controlled emission are obtained.
№04/25Information Recording in Optically Active Cholesteric Liquid Crystals Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation20000 ევრო31.03.3014წ.–დან 24 თვე (2014-2016)Guram Chilaia Gural Chilaia, Andro Chanishvili, Nino Ponjavidze "A principle of information optical recording based on the optically controlled giant polarization plane rotation of the optocal layer is proposed. A thin cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) layer with a record high optical activity is used as an optical layer. The project was divided into the following tasks. 1. Study and selection of photosensitive liquid crystalline and non-liquid crystalline components for the preparation of photosensitive optically active liquid crystal mixtures. 2. Preparation of liquid crystal mixtures from the selected components, which have optimal properties for achieving the project objectives. Making thin layers from the obtained mixtures and selecting the optimal thicknesses. 3. Recording the information in the obtained layers. For this, the mask method of recording the optical image was selected. Numerous components were investigated and mixtures based on light-controlled optical activity were fabricated. The mixtures of two components (ZhK-440 from NIOPIK and MLC-6248 from Merck) were selected as the best ones for the set tasks. By changing the percentage ratio of these components, we were able to obtain a liquid crystal layer in which the angle of rotation of the polarization plane was set to an optimal 90°, while other undesirable optical properties, such as optical anisotropy, selective reflectance, absorption and scattering were practically insignificant. The layer thickness was 7μ. Thus, thin and transparent, optically isotropic and active layers, which returned the light polarization plane of light by 90°, were obtained. Their photo- and thermo-optical and dispersion properties were investigated. The obtained layers were used for recording diffraction gratings. The final stage of the project involved the selection of recording conditions, namely irradiation times, filters, masks types, and distances from the light source to the CLC layer on which the optimal recording was taking place. As a result, two types of physical effects in CLCs were used: (1) based on photo-modulation of the helix pitch of the CLC and (2) "cholesteric-to-isotropic liquid" phase transition. Thin and transparent, optically isotropic, optically active and, at the same time, photosensitive layers, which returned the optical plane by 90° have been obtained. Diffraction gratings have recorded in these layers when irradiated with ultraviolet light. The possibility of information optical recording based on photo-modulation of the optical activity of a thin layer of an optically active liquid crystal has been demonstrated.
№FR/403/4-100/13Light Controlled Gyrotropy of Liquid Crystals for Information RecordingFundamental Research grantGeorgian National Science Foundation119750 ლარი31.03.2014წ–31.09.2016წChilaia Guram 1. Chilaia Guram 2. Chanishvili Andro 3. Tavzarashvili Svetlana 4. Tevdorashvili Ketevan 5 . Nakhutsrishvili Irakli A physical principle of optical information recording in polymer doped cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs) is proposed. The principle is based on light induced modulation of optical activity i.e. polarization plane rotation of the CLC layer. The idea to use the polarization plane rotation angle in gyrotropic material as a photo-modulated optical parameter is not new. But this method did not become widespread because of the absence of the material possessing strong and, in addition to that, photo-controllable gyrotropy. The solid BSO crystal considered to be the most appropriate material for this application has the specific rotation of 22 deg/mm for wavelength of 633nm. To obtain an appreciable photo-change of this parameter the crystal layer thickness of several millimeters is required for optical information recording. In this Project we propose a CLC material perfectly combining the two most important for this application features - easily photo-controllable structure and giant structural optical activity (its specific rotation is 10000 deg/mm). In this material optical rotation by 90 degrees is reached using the layer thickness of several microns. It is important that the manifestation of other CLC features such as light scattering, birefringence, dichroism and selective reflection are negligible. On the basis of this principle diffraction gratings in a few micron thick layer have been recorded. The main objective of the project was to demonstrate the possibility of optical recording of information based on the spatial photo-modulation of gyrotropy of a cholesterol liquid crystal (CLC) layer. The required and sufficient thickness of the ClC layer to achieve the set goal, according to our calculations, should not exceed 10 μm, which is almost three orders of magnitude less than the similar rate of the best material described in the literature. This was the scientific novelty of the project. As shown by the studies conducted within the project, our calculations were confirmed and we were able to record the information in CLC layers 5 to 10 μm thick. To achieve this goal, the following main tasks were set: 1) obtaining the of light-controlled gyrotropic cholesterol CLC structures; 2) implementation of spatial photo-modulation of the rotation of the polarization plane in these structures; 3) optical recording of diffraction gratings in the layers of the obtained structures. Optical, chemical, and photochemical properties of various liquid crystalline and non-liquid crystalline substances and their interactions were studied to obtain light-controlled gyrotropic cholesterol TC structures. CLC mixtures with the parameters required for solving the project objectives were fabricated from the selected materials and their optical and photo-optical properties were studied. It was shown that the mixtures of photosensitive nematics and non-photosensitive optically active dopants are the most useful for solving the set tasks. On their basis light-controlled gyrotropic cholesterol CLC layers with very high parameters were obtained. For the first time the possibility of information recording in a thin optical layer on the basis of gyrotropy spatial photo-modulation was shown. The thickness of optical layer is 5…10mcm. This value is almost three orders of magnitude less than the same characteristic of the best material described in the literature. This statement declared the scientific novelty of the project.
№ 2.5.02Investigation of polarization holographic recording in dynamic polarization-sensitive media 2002 Resolution of the Presidium of the Georgian Academy of SciencesGeorgian National Academy of Sciences5913 ლარი21.02.2002-13.02.2003Barbara Kilosanidze George Kakauridze, Vladimer Tarasashvili, Valentina Shaverdova, Elene Osepaishvili Svetlana Petrova, Anna Purtseladze "So far, the materials in which the photoanisotropy increases to saturation with the increase in energy exposure and are maintained for a long time after the termination of the irradiation have been well studied. Such materials are widely used in polarization holography, polarization-holographic optical elements, Weigert photography, and optical information processing tasks. Polarization-holographic registration of non-stationary wave fields requires polarization-sensitive recording materials with dynamic and reversibility properties with a conformational-orientational mechanism of photoanisotropy induction, with a spontaneous relaxation time much less than the characteristic time of non-stationarity. A theoretical model of photoanisotropy induction in polarization-sensitive materials with conformational-orientational mechanism of inducing anisotropy, taking into account the relaxation during dimming was developed. The dependence of the magnitude of anisotropy and the relaxation time during dimming on the relaxation coefficient and the intensity of the inducing linearly polarized radiation is shown. It has been shown that by changing the characteristics and varying the intensity of the illuminating radiation, polarization-sensitive materials with different times of photoanisotropy induction and dimming relaxation can be obtained. It should be noted that unlike the photophysical mechanisms of photoanisotropy induction, which require high-intensity of inducing radiation, the obtained materials differ significantly in high sensitivity to polarized light, which allows of low-power lasers to be used, as well as ease fabrication and low cost. " "During the implementation of the project, the following results were obtained: Model discussion of photoanisotropy induced by linearly polarized radiation in relaxable polarization-sensitive materials with conformational-orientational transitions is carried out. In order to quantify the photoanisotropy, we used the quantity of effective anisotropy, which is equal to the square of the modulus of the anisotropic invariant of the Jones matrix. In order to verify the theoretical results, the kinetics of photoanisotropy was investigated in polarization-sensitive materials based on dimethyl yellow dye introducing into different polymer matrices: polyvinyl butyral, nitrocellulose, polystyrene, polymethyl methacrylate, polycarbonate, epoxy resin ED-6, polymer glue-UV. The time to reach the maximum value of anisotropy and the dark relaxation time were determined. The proposed model allows to determine the relaxation coefficient for the obtained polarization-sensitive materials using experimental data. A special photometric device was created to study the kinetics of photoanisotropy. It has been shown that in case of increasing the intensity of the inducing light, the time to reach the maximum effective anisotropy decreases and becomes of the order of milliseconds. If we limit ourselves not to the maximum value of Aeff, but to the value of Aeff = 1% (which is quite sufficient for some tasks), then the time to reach such a value of Aeff will be of the order of 10-4 s. For example, for dimethyl yellow in a polymethyl methacrylate matrix, this time is ~300 microseconds. However, the relaxation remains slow and the relaxation time can be shortened by external influences. It is shown that the time of anisotropy induction and relaxation can be reduced by varying the intensity of illumination and the value of the relaxation coefficient, as well as by using external influences (parallel irradiation with circularly polarized light, selection of the temperature regime, etc.). For example, the shortest anisotropy induction time of the order of 100 ps is announced. It has been shown that the relaxation time can be further reduced if we use additional external influences, for example, parallel irradiation with incoherent circularly polarized light. In addition, the spectral width of the anisotropic bleaching region in selenium-cadmium glass, when exposed to the latter by a monopulse of a linearly polarized ruby laser, was measured. The curve of induced anisotropic absorption dispersion in the extreme absorption spectral region (650 – 750 nm) of KC-19 type glasses is obtained. The study of the spectral properties of the photoanisotropy event is interesting both for the analysis of the structure of the active absorption centers of colored glasses and in the practical tasks of polarization dynamic holography. " "1. A theoretical model has been developed to describe the polarization-holographic recording-reproduction of non-stationary wave fields. 2. Experimental-technological work was carried out to obtain reverse polarization-sensitive areas (dyes introduced into various matrices, cuvettes with dye solution, glasses). 3. The experimental verification of the registration of non-stationary wave fields by the polarization-holographic method was carried out. 4. Polarization sensitometric measurements of the characteristics of polarization sensitive materials with short relaxation time was carried out; 5. Experimental testing of polarization-sensitive materials with small spontaneous relaxation time was carried out. 6. During the implementation of the project 5 scientific articles were published. "
№2.5.04Polarization-holographic recording in dynamic polarization-sensitive materials2004 Resolution of the Presidium of the Georgian Academy of Sciences C15Georgian National Academy of Sciences6072 ლარი01.01.2004 --31.12.2005Barbara Kilosanidze Vladimer Tarasashvili, George Kakauridze,Valentina Shaverdova, Elene Osepaishvili Svetlana Petrova, Anna Purtseladze "The main goal of the project was the development of polarization-sensitive recording materials for dynamic polarization holographic methods for processing optical information in real time. Materials with a conformational-orientational photochemical mechanism of anisotropy induction and with as short as possible photoanisotropy induction and relaxation times are necessary for this. Dynamic polarization-sensitive materials created on the basis of different types of azo dyes introduced into different types of polymer matrices have been synthesized and investigated. Such materials do not require high intensity for recording, which allows the use of low power compact continuous radiation lasers. The influence of molecular structure of azo dyes on photoanisotropy is studied. Based on this, new dyes with predefined properties have been synthesized and optimization of the rigid-elastic properties of polymer matrices has been carried out. Experiments on the materials created on the basis of dimethyl yellow azo dye showed that for some samples, the time to reach the maximum value of anisotropy is about 40 ms, and the relaxation time during dimming is 300 ms when illuminated with linearly polarized actinic light (λ = 441.6 nm, illumination intensity 1 W/cm2). These times can be reduced by changing the rigid-elastic properties of polymer matrices by introducing different plasticizers, as well as by applying additional actinic incoherent radiation to reduce relaxation times. A model description of the kinetics of photoanisotropy induction by polarized light is obtained. The dependence of the relaxation coefficient on the material characteristics is investigated. These studies can lay the foundation for the creation of new types of optical devices based on dynamic polarization hologram for optical amplification and switching, real-time optical recognition, rapid analysis and transformation of optical fields. " "The following results were obtained: Dynamic polarization-sensitive materials with the conformational-orientational photochemical mechanism of anisotropy induction and the shortest possible times of photoanisotropy induction and relaxation were obtained. Various types of dynamic polarization-sensitive areas based on organic dyes introduced into polymer matrices have been synthesized and investigated. An experimental-technological study of dynamic polarization-sensitive materials was carried out: A study of the dependence of the relaxation coefficient on the characteristics of polarization sensitive materials and external factors; A study of the conditions for achieving the maximum value of effective anisotropy and obtaining short relaxation times during dimming. It is shown that dynamic polarization-sensitive materials do not require high intensities of inducing radiation (expected value 0.01 – 10 W/cm2), which allows to use low power compact continuous radiation lasers. Various types of polymer matrices and organic dyes were used to create dynamic polarization-sensitive materials. The influence of molecular structure of azo dyes on photoanisotropy is studied. Based on this, new dyes with predetermined properties have been synthesized and optimization of the rigid-elastic properties of polymer matrices has been carried out. He-Cd, Ar, He-Ne lasers are used as actinic and sensing radiation sources. A photometric set-up was developed that the characteristics of the obtained materials to be measured. Experiments on polarization-sensitive materials, which were created on the basis of dimethyl yellow azo dye introduced into different matrices, showed that for some samples, the time to reach the maximum value of anisotropy is 30 msec, and the relaxation time during dimming is 300 msec when illuminated with linearly polarized actinic light (λ = 441.6 nm, illumination intensity 1 W/cm2). In order to reduce these times, the rigid-elastic properties of polymer matrices were changed by introducing different plasticizers. The effect of additional actinic incoherent irradiation on reduction of relaxation times was studied. A model description of the kinetics of photoanisotropy induction by polarized light in dynamic polarization-sensitive materials with a conformational-orientational mechanism of anisotropy induction is obtained. The dependence of the relaxation time of anisotropy and darkening on the relaxation coefficient and the intensity of the applied radiation is shown. The obtained dynamic polarization-sensitive materialswere used to create dynamic polarization-holographic gratings with an anisotropic profile. The process of self-diffraction on such gratings is studied. " "1. The dependence of the relaxation coefficient of polarization-sensitive materials on the material characteristics, such as the rigid-elastic properties of the polymer matrix and the structure of the dye molecules were established. 2. The dependence of the relaxation coefficient of dynamic polarization-sensitive materials on the external factors - temperature and additional incoherent actinic radiation was shown. 3. The possibility of applying dynamic polarization-sensitive materials were investigated: to obtain effects characteristic of non-linear scalar materials, such as energy transfer from a strong beam to a weak one for optical amplification and switching; To create an optical recognition device working in real time; For creating dynamic polarization-holographic elements. 4. 5 scientific articles have been published. The results of the research are reported at the Symposium Photonics West -2005, San Jose, California, USA. "
BPG#01/06Polarization-holographic system for protection of documents, valuable papers and industrial productsSTEP Science & Technology Enterpreneurship Program, Business Partnership GrantU.S. Civilian Research & Development Foundation (CRDF) and DOBERA Ltd. (Georgia)5000 USD (CRDF) and 1000 USD (DOBERA Ltd.)26.02.2006 -26.02.2007George Kakauridze Barbara Kilosanidze, Yuri Mshvenieradze "Now the problem of protection of documents, securities, bank notes, various type of the industrial products from forgery is rather actual and on the market of protective technologies there is a big need for new systems with higher level of protection. Polarization-holographic protection system for important documents, securities and industrial products was developed in this project. This system of protection is based on polarization properties of light and the use of specially synthesized polarization-sensitive materials. These materials are used for recording a protective element by the polarization-holographic method. There is the possibility of using for recording any predetermined combination of polarization state of two recording beams from infinite number of possible combinations (linear, circular and elliptic polarization). Unlike holographic systems of protection existing now, an essential advantage of the suggested system is the impossibility of copying polarization-holographic protective elements by optical methods in principle that complicates their forgery. One more advantage of this protection system is that visually protective elements look absolutely homogeneous and it is impossible to determine what is written on the given protective element by any usually used device (ultra-violet and infra-red radiation, electromagnetic fields, microscopes, etc.). Authenticity of a protective element is easily determined only by means of the identifying device developed by us in the project. The device forms nonactinic transilluminating linearly polarized beam of a diode laser which diffracts on the polarization-holographic protective element. For the analysis of the polarization state of diffracted beams the polarization-holographic gratings of anisotropic profile created by us are used which enable all the parameters of polarization ellipses (ellipticity, directions of rotation and azimuths) of diffracted beams to be defined simultaneously and in real time. These values are compared with etalon from identifying device and in case of coincidence the identifying device confirms the authenticity of a protective element. The technology developed in the given project assumes the work of protective elements on a transmission that is not quite convenient for some applications. More universal is the system with protective elements of reflective type. For creation of such a system the carrying out of additional researches and development is required. " "The suggested polarization-holographic system of protection consists of the polarization-holographic protective elements made on film material and which are glued on protected objects. In the given Project transparent protective elements were received. However the work for receiving reflective polarization-holographic protective elements is being planned to carry out. The polarization-sensitive material with big values of photoanisotropy that allowed high diffraction efficiency to be received (of the order of 30 - 40 %) has been specially obtained for the protective element recording. The recording was carried out by means of Ar laser radiation (λ = 488 nm) which is actinic for the received material. The samples of protective elements with various combinations of the polarization state of recording beams have been received, one of which has been chosen as the etalon for identification. These elements were glued on the model of various documents, in particular, on the model of credit cards. The identifying opto-electronic device has been developed and obtained. The device forms nonactinic transilluminating linearly polarized beam of a diode laser (λ = 645 nm). This beam comes on the polarization-holographic protective element and the zero, -1 and +1 orders of diffraction are formed as a result of diffraction on the element. For the analysis of the polarization state of diffracted beams the polarization-holographic gratings of an anisotropic profile created by us are used which enable all the parameters of polarization ellipses of diffracted beams to be determined simultaneously and in real time. In its turn the beams diffracted on the protective element come on gratings and also diffracts on them. As a result four orders of diffraction are formed from each of them. The intensities of these orders are measured by means of photodetectors and a measuring device. This enables the values of the parameters of polarization ellipses (ellipticity, directions of rotation and azimuths) of beams diffracted on the protective element to be received by the formulas obtained by us. The obtained parameters of polarization ellipses have been compared with etalon from identifying device and in case of coincidence the device confirms the authenticity of a protective element. Let's note, that the identifying device does not contain an expensive polarizing prisms and quarter wave plates that essentially reduces its cost and allows to work in a wide spectral range. " "1. The development of the technology of reception of polarization-sensitive materials in the form of film. 2. Creation of technology of coating a film material with protective layer. 3. Development of industrial technology of reception of polarization-holographic protective elements 4. Development of industrial technology of optoelectronic identifying devices for the determination of the authenticity of a protective element. 5. Polarization-holographic protection system characteriastics: a. Polarization-holographic protective elements • Transmission type • Diffraction efficiency range 10 – 50% • Working range 520 – 4000 nm • Temperature range -300C - +400C b. Identifying Device • Size 18cm X 10 cm X 8 cm • Weight 300 g • Power consumption 5 W • Transmitted wavelength 645 nm • Working in real time. 6. Presentations were made on 3 International Conferences. 3 full papers were published in the International Conferences Proceedings. Patent materials were prepared (ID № 9858/01. Patent priority 9 February 2007). "
№ GNSF/ST06/4-022Polarization-sensitive mediums with expanded spectral range reception, investigation, useState competition of scientific grants in 2006"Georgian National Science Foundation"96 000 ლარი02.11.2006-02.11.2008Vladimer Tarasashvili "Vladimer Tarasashvili; Ana Purtseladze; Valentina Shaverdova; Svetlana Petrova; Nino Obolashvili " "The relevance of the project was due to the great potential of using the polarization-sensitive area in the tasks of coherent optics, interferometry and information processing. Highly efficient polarization-sensitive materials used as recording areas (carriers) in polarization holography clearly show the greatest prospects for the practical use of such areas: 1) Creation of an element of high information capacity for polarization-holographic memory. 2) Creation of polarization-holographic correctors of laser radiation. 3) creation of polarization-holographic grating with an anisotropic profile. 4) Modeling, analysis and control of tension in a deformed environment without damaging the object. the so-called Detection of Dauphin binaries using polarization interferometry, etc. Devices of this type can be created only on the basis of polarization sensitive areas. The main problem in polarization holography was/is the acquisition of a polarization-sensitive, high diffraction efficiency and technological recording device in a wide spectral range, which, in addition to the well-known requirements in scalar holography, should be characterized by sufficient sensitivity to polarized radiation in a wide spectral area to achieve the optimal value of the induced anisotropic characteristics and, hence, high diffraction efficiency, in the adequate reflection of the state of polarization of the wave scattered on the object in the train. The goal of the project was to carry out search-research works in a wide area of the spectrum (250-1600 nm) to obtain polarization-driven, highly efficient recording areas on the basis of organic dyes, halogenated silver, as well as activated inorganic and organic glasses; Polarization-sensitive areas, which are obtained within the framework of project implementation, have a number of preferences. The following are essential among them: 1) areas created on the basis of organic dyes of different classes: the possibility of perfecting the technological modes for the optimization of the mentioned anisotropic characteristics; high sensitivity to polarized radiation (39 sq.cm/joule); grainless structure; wide spectral range of photoanisotropic sensitivity (325-800 nm); narrow bands of absorption maxima; the possibility of working in dynamic and stationary modes during irradiation; Unlimited cycle of writing and erasing information (reversibility). 2) areas created on the basis of activated glasses are characterized by: stable photoanisotropic sensitivity in a wide spectral range (250-1600 nm); The possibility of recording under conditions of exposure to chemically aggressive and high-intensity (watt/sq.cm) radiation, without breaking the structure; Exposed is the possibility of excluding shrinkage (thickness change); high resolution; three-dimensional, volumetric, informational capacity; Depending on the need, the possibility of giving the train any shape and further correction ‒ as a result, the possibility of meeting recording cones from any angle in the desired direction; the ability to work in dynamic mode with relaxation times of the order of nanoseconds; reversibility. 3) As a result of physico-chemical technological processing of photoanisotropic areas obtained on the basis of silver halides, it is possible to significantly improve their anisotropic characteristics. Based on the complex studies conducted in the project, methods were developed to achieve the optimal values of anisotropic parameters for the investigated areas. Polarization registration in received polarization-sensitive areas, in addition to traditionally used polarized light sources, It was also carried out with non-polarized sources, and therefore new opportunities for their use in practical tasks appeared: polarization-holographic copying, determination of the degree of depolarization of non-stationary systems, etc. The discussed method was the basis of the application for a patent for the invention ""Interferogram recording device in incident cones"". The right to use the convention priority has been received (number 68638 ""Sakpatenti"" 2008-09-18). An important novelty of the project is polarization-holographic registration with non-polarized light sources; Only with such a method is it possible to copy any optical pairing in a holographic way. " "Detailed description (for completed project) The purpose of the project was to conduct research and research works in a wide area of the spectrum (250-1600 nm) to obtain polarization-driven, highly efficient recording areas based on organic dyes, halogenated silver, as well as activated inorganic and organic glasses; Theoretical and experimental study of the phenomenon of photoinduced anisotropy-gyrotropy in the mentioned areas and application of polarization holography in practical tasks. The mentioned studies in the project were carried out by the polarization-holographic method. To achieve the goals set in the project, the following research tasks were planned and implemented: 1. Exploratory studies of different classes of polarization-sensitive areas. While performing the mentioned task, the project performers synthesized areas based on various combinations of azo dyes and polymers; several dyes monoazo dyes; The synthesis of dyes, which represent a kind of homologous series of the dye methyl orange, was also carried out. Sensitometric analysis of obtained polarization-sensitive areas was performed and samples with optimal values of anisotropic parameters were selected. Optimization of polymer matrix properties was also carried out and technological modes were developed. Polarization-sensitometric and polarization-holographic examinations were conducted. It was found that samples dyed with monopropylene orange showed the best results. The obtained results confirm that the conducted purposeful synthesis is justified and gives hope for perfecting the areas for further optimization of photoanisotropic parameters. Stable materials with high values of photoanisotropic parameters have also been investigated by the project performers. In order to expand the spectral range of photoanisotropy of polarization-sensitive areas in the long-wave region of the spectrum, dyes of the triphenylmethane class were used. The methodology of their sensitization with dichromate (K, Na, NH4) solutions has been developed by the project participants. Gyrotropy effects in photochromic glasses are also studied in detail. Experimental results reveal that in photochromic glasses, the photoinduced circular dichroism curves are anomalous curves and consist of two bands with opposite signs. The exposure dependence curve of induced circular dichroism magnitude at the corresponding frequency of T-type centers is also obtained. The analysis of the obtained curve reveals the similarity of the mechanisms of induced photogyrotropy and linear photoanisotropy. Diffraction efficiencies have been measured for photochromic materials, the sufficient value of this parameter provides the basis for their use in practical tasks of holography. 2. Theoretical study of the phenomenon of photoanisotropy and photogyrotropy in the investigated areas. Splitting the absorption spectra of polarization-sensitive areas into individual bands is one of the important parts of the theoretical study of the photoanisotropy phenomenon. Decomposition of the anisotropic absorption spectral density curves of the selected areas into the corresponding partial densities of individual staining centers and absorption oscillators was carried out. In order to decompose the absorption spectra, the mathematical package Microcal Origin was selected and used. For the quantitative sensitometric studies of the polarization characteristics, in parallel with the polarization-holographic methods, another, latest optical method - 0-ellipsometry was developed and used to determine the search parameters. Most importantly, both methods are based on the Jones vector-matrix apparatus. 3. Investigation of photoanisotropy and photogyrotropy in three-dimensional samples. Three-dimensional photoanisotropic areas have crucial importance for practical tasks; Using only the third dimension allows storing information with the greatest density, all of the above is more valid for polarization-sensitive areas, where all the features of the total field ellipse are fixed. In the project, experimental methods of studies of anisotropy and gyrotropy characteristics of three-dimensional irradiated in mutually orthogonal sections were developed. Targeted investigation of three-dimensional polarization-sensitive regions with clearly defined reflective photoanisotropic effects has shown, that the three-dimensional gratings obtained from them can be considered as an optical analogue of the crystal grating. Technological progress in this direction will allow us to further expand the range of spectral sensitivity of recording anisotropic, polarization-holographic carriers. 4. Research of polarization-sensitive areas of multi-component and halogenated silver. A study of multi-component recording areas, which are polarization-sensitive in a wide spectral range and suitable for recording with red, green and blue actinic light, has been carried out. Such materials play a crucial role in recording information in different frequency ranges and in fine holography. In order to obtain areas capable of inducing photoanisotropy in a wide spectral range, exploratory studies were conducted to select pairs of dyes that are compatible with each other and yield transparent, homogeneous areas. 51 pairs of such dyes were searched and photoanisotropic samples were obtained by introducing them into gelatin, polyvinylpyrrolidone and polyvinyl alcohol matrices. A computer analysis of the molecular structure of the obtained multi-component dye mixtures was also carried out. Within the framework of the given task, the research of polarization-sensitive areas of multi-component and halogenated silver showed that these types of areas are characterized by completely different so-called Anisotropy of excitonic‒collective excitation. The latter one represents great interest to modern researchers in solid state physics. A preliminary study of photoanisotropy in various photographic materials consisted in the detection of the ISP spectral range. Further, the imprinted spectra were examined in crossed polarizers: at this time, the areas of the spectrum, where anisotropy appeared, changed their brightness, even color sometimes. It has been observed that the magnitude of induced photoanisotropy in silver halide emulsions is affected by a large number of different physicochemical factors. including the selected emulsion type, hypersensitivity, heat treatment, exposure, wavelength of incident light, exposure agent, fixation, etc. Thus, we have a wide range of opportunities to optimize the processing technology of photomaterials to reveal the photoanisotropy induced in them as much as possible. As a conclusion, it is possible to note that the main merit of the photoanisotropic areas, obtained on the basis of silver halides, is their stability; This type of materials has high light sensitivity; They allow us to vary the values of their photoanisotropic parameters within wide limits and also to carry out dire "1. Optical circuits were developed and created: 1.1. Schematic mock-up of polarization detection device. 1.2. Polarization correlator mockup. 1.3. A mock-up of the ""Dauphin Doubles"" recognition scheme. 1.4. Polarization-holographic high-capacity memory element. 1.5. Optical drive copy. 1.6. Diffraction messer with three-dimensional anisotropic profile is made. 2. Theoretical studies were carried out: 2.1. Methods of expanding absorption spectra of anisotropic samples into individual bands. 2.2. Phenomenon of photoanisotropy and photogyrotropy in three-dimensional areas. 2.3. Quantitative sensitometric studies of polarization characteristics by polarization-holographic methods and optical method - 0-ellipsometry. Results presentation materials: theoretical models; decomposition of experimentally measured absorption curves into Gaussians (or Lorentzians) using the mathematical package Microcal Origin; Publications. 3. Search and research works were carried out and technological modes were developed: 3.1. Synthesized: aminoazobenzene and its simplest derivatives; dyeing monoazo dyes; Dyes that represent a kind of homologous series of the dye methyl orange. 3.2. The effects of temperature, different types of fields, pressure, humidity and other external factors on anisotropic parameters are studied; Gyrotropy effects in photochromic glasses. 3.3. The following were developed: 1) the technology of introduction into polymer matrices; 2) technology of optimal concentrations of ingredients, temperature and drying regimes of dyes; 3) the technology of selecting silver halide materials and creating their processing modes; 4) wide possibilities of optimizing the technology of processing photo materials to reveal the photo anisotropy induced in them as much as possible; 5) Methods of processing silver halide materials. 3.4. The following have been investigated and studied: 1) the possibility of obtaining highly effective polarization holograms by bleaching and darkening photochromic samples with light sources whose wavelengths are located in the absorption spectral region of this type of glasses (200–1000 nm); 2) Effect of hypersensitivity (HS) and heat treatment (TD) on photoanisotropy in emulsions ВРП. 3) hidden image disclosure features in fine-grained silver halide photoemulsions; 4) Mixtures based on bichromic TPM paints. 3.5. Investigated and obtained: 1) multi-component recording areas 2) photoanisotropic areas based on silver halides; 3) dynamic polarization-sensitive carrier edium - alcohol solution of cryptocyanine dye created on the basis of absorbing liquids; 4) polarization-sensitive areas based on glasses activated by ionizing radiation and semiconductor crystals; 5) new type of materials based on bichromated gelatin, the stability of the holograms written on them represents the main advantage of them; 6) polarization holograms recorded on radiation-colored silicate glasses; 7) photoanisotropic areas based on silver halides; 3) Simple, small-component detectors that exhibit appreciable photoanisotropy. Materials illustrating the results: patterns of three-dimensional polarization-sensitive areas; Different types of organic, quartz and inorganic glass samples; samples of polarization-sensitive areas of multicomponent and halogenated silver; kinetic curves of effective anisotropy values; samples of multicomponent and halogenated silver polarization-sensitive areas; kinetic curves of effective anisotropy values; polarization compliance curves; Spectral dependence curves of induced anisotropy; curves of energy dependence of anisotropic absorption; Curves of absorption spectrum of photoanisotropic samples into individual bands. 4. 14 scientific works were prepared and published, 9 of them in international and 5 local journals. 5. Applications for the invention were made and patents were received: 1) Name of the invention: ""Holographic interferogram recording device in converging cones"" (P 2010 4971 B); 2) Name of the invention: ""Polarization-holographic method of optical signal amplification and correction"" (P 2010 5094). 6. The conference ""Holographic and optical recording, storage and processing of information, HOLOOP-2008"" was held with the financial support of the National Science Foundation of Georgia under the grant No. GNSF/ST06/4-022. September 22-23, Tbilisi, 2008. 7. Participation in conferences: International 7.1. Coherent Optical Technologies and Applications 2008 (Boston, Massachusetts, USA, July 13-16). 7.2. SPIE Europe Optical Systems Design 2008 (Glasgow, Scotland, September 2-5). Local 7.3. Holographic and optical recording, storage and processing of information, Holographic and optical recording, storage and processing of information, HOLOOPTO-2008 (Tbilisi, September 22-23)."
BPG#05/07Development of automatic portatable fast-operating polarization-holographic saccharimeter for the control of quality of beer in the process of productionSTEP Science & Technology Enterpreneurship Program, Business Partnership GrantU.S. Civilian Research & Development Foundation (CRDF) and VD-group Ltd. (Georgia) 5000 USD (CRDF) and 500 USD (VD-Group Ltd.)15.01.2007 15.01.2008Barbara Kilosanidze George Kakauridze, Yuri Mshvenieradze "Objective of the Project was the creation of the working laboratory model of the automatic portable, high-precision saccharimeter on the basis of polarization-holographic element for the determination of sugar concentration in malt during the beer production. The developed saccharimeter can be used immediately in the process of production of beer, wine, juices, soft drinks and in other branches of production such as pharmacology, perfumery and so on, also in medical diagnostics and material sciences. For creating saccharimeter a new method of precision measurement of an angle of rotation of polarization plane of light which passes through optically active matter was developed based on the polarization-holographic gratings. The technology of creating such gratings was carried out. Such a grating is the main optical unit of the automatic polarization-holographic saccharimeter. The developed polarization-holographic saccharimeter is based on the property of liquids containing sugar to rotate a plane of polarization of linearly polarized light passing through a liquid and the angle of rotation of a plane of polarization is proportional to sugar concentration. Unlike existing saccharimeters in the developed polarization-holographic saccharimeter the precision measurement of an angle of rotation is carried out by means of the polarization-holographic grating created by us. Precision measurement of an angle of rotation of polarization plane of linearly polarized light when it passed through optically active liquid was carried out for the determination of concentration of sugar by means of polarization-holographic gratings and by measuring intensities of beams diffracted on the grating. Working formulas are received for accurate determination of sugar concentration. It is shown, that in such a way it is possible to measure an angle of rotation of polarization plane. This enables the concentration of sugar to be determined in real time and with sufficient accuracy. The accuracy of this method is at least twice as much than the accuracy of the existing methods. Moreover, such an approach enables the device to be created which does not contain any mechanically moving, rotating or electronic-tunable optical elements. By that the compact enough, high-speed and cheap device has been obtained in comparison with existing automatic saccharimeters. " "In the given Project at the first time a laboratory model of the automatic portable high-speed saccharimeter on the basis of polarization-holographic element was developed and created. The technology of polarization-holographic gratings is used for the creation of such an element that is the main optical unit of the automatic polarization-holographic saccharimeter. The technology of reception of such gratings was developed by the Science Team of the Project. If the linearly polarized light beam of diode laser (λ = 635 nm) with the certain azimuth passes through the polarimetric tube with sugar solution under investigation then it results in rotation of a plane of polarization (the change of an azimuth) due to optical activity. Then the light beam passes through the diaphragm, which removes light scattered by a solution. The value of the change of an azimuth under standard conditions (temperature 200C and polarimetric tube with certain length) unambiguously depends on the concentration of sugar in a solution. The light beam enters on the high-quality phase quarter-wave plate, which is oriented so that in the absence of optically active material the transmitted light beam is linearly polarized. In the presence of optically active material in polarimetric tube, due to the rotation of a plane of polarization, after a quarter wave plate light gets certain ellipticity which value is also unambiguously connected with concentration of optically active material in a solution. Then the light enters on the polarization-holographic grarting which forms zero, -1 and +1 orders of diffraction. The ratio of intensities of these orders unambiguously determines the value of ellipticity of light and by that the concentration of active material in a solution. We can also determine a direction of rotation by the ratio of intensities: if this ratio is greater than unit, a direction of rotation is right-hand; if it is less than unit we have left-hand material. -1 and +1 orders of diffraction get on photodetectors. The signal from photodetectors gets on the block of electronic processing which carries out the analog-digital transformation and gives out result in the form of the ratio of intensities of these orders on the liquid crystal display. Graduation of polarization-holographic saccharimeter was made. The ratio of intensities of diffracted orders have been measured for different solutions by means of the laboratory model of polarization-holographic saccharimeter developed by us and the characteristic curve has been obtained. The determination of unknown concentration of an investigated solution is carried out in the following way: polarimetric tube is filled up with the solution and the ratio of intensities of diffracted orders is determined. The concentration of active material is determined by obtained characteristic curve. In the developed method in principle it is possible to achieve an accuracy of measurement of 0.001 circular degrees that corresponds to 0,003 sugar degrees. In the developed laboratory model of a saccharimeter an accuracy of measurement of 0.2 sugar degrees is achieved. To increase the accuracy more precision photodetectors and element base of the electronic device should be used. For the developed device the flowing polarimetric tube of 116.45 mm length was specially designed, as monochromatic light of a wavelength of 635 nanometers is used. In this case the angle of rotation of a plane of polarization is exactly equal to an angle of rotation for standard saccharimeters, where the polarimetric tubes of 100.00 mm length and light of wavelength of 589 nanometers are used. By means of the pump, filter and thermostat, from working capacity on manufacture the purified investigated liquid at temperature of 200C moves into polarimetric tube by plastic tubes. Then measurements are made. The time of measurement is limited only by speed of processing of results and may be micro seconds and less. By means of the developed device we have determined the concentration of sugar in malt on manufacture of company “VD-group”. Fresh malt usually contained +64.5±0.20S and later on, while maturing the content of sugar decreased up to +56.7±0.20S. Besides we have measured the contents of sugar in dry white wine of wine factory of the city of Kvareli and have received value +3.8±0,20S. " "1. The polarization-holographic element was created. 2. The photometric scheme was developed, made and checked-out. 3. The laboratory model of the automatic portable high-speed polarization-holographic saccharimeter was developed and made on the basis of polarization-holographic element. 4. Calibration and determination of a range of measurements, speed, sensitivity and accuracy of the device were carried out. 5. Experimental determination of the concentration of glucose and sucrose in water solution in laboratory conditions were carried out. 6. The following characteristics for the developed laboratory model of the automatic portable high-speed polarization-holographic saccharimeter: • Range of measurements, circular degrees from -45 up to +45; • Range of measurements, sugar degrees from -125 up to + 125; • Precision of measurements, circular degrees ±0.07; • Precision of measurements, sugar degrees ±0.2; • Wavelength of measurement, nm 635; • Power consumption, W 20; • Dimensions, mm: Optical block 360х60х50 Electronic block 245х140х105 • Weight, kg 2. 7. The automatic polarization-holographic saccharimeter was tested in brewery of “VD-group” Ltd. 8. 3 papers were published in international and domestic journals, participation on 1 international conference. "
BPG# 01/09 და GRDF-GNSF/08-524Development of advanced reflection polarization-holographic protection system for documents, valuable papers and industrial products   STEP Science & Technology Enterpreneurship Program, Business Partnership Grant (BPG) 2008 and GNSF joint competition U.S. Civilian Research & Development Foundation (CRDF) (grant BPG# 01/09), and Georgian National Science Foundation (GNSF) (grant GNSF/08-524) და DOBERA Ltd. (Georgia)40000 ლარი (CRDF), 500 ლარი (DOBERA Ltd.) და 31665 ლარი (GNSF)01.01.2009 01.01.2010George KakauridzeBarbara Kilosanidze,იYuri Mshvenieradze, Irakli Chaganava The problem of protection of documents, securities, bank notes, various types of industrial products, rainbow holograms from forgery and copying is rather actual and on the market of protective technologies there is a big need for new systems with higher level of protection. The pre-industrial technology of reception of reflection polarization-holographic protective elements is created, and also a pre-production model of the identifying device for real time determining the authenticity of protective elements is developed and obtained. The developed system is based on polarization properties of light and the use of specially synthesized polarization-sensitive materials on which the recording of a protective element is made by the polarization-holographic method. The developed system of protection has the following essential advantages in comparison with holographic systems of protection existing now: • A code is recorded on a protective element by the polarization-holographic method as the combination of polarization state of the two recording beams, pre-chosen from an infinite number of possible combinations of polarization states (actually the number of combinations is approximately 1018). • To create polarization-holographic protective element the polarization sensitive materials are used specially developed by us so that they possess predetermined meanings of scalar and two vector reactions and to the action of polarized light. The polarization state of the beams diffracted on the protective element depends on the meanings of these reactions. • The identification of the authenticity of the protective element is carried out by its illumination with reading nonactinic polarized laser beam with a definitive polarization state and by complete analysis of the polarization state of two reflected beams which are formed in the process of diffraction of reading beam on the protective element. • The copying of polarization-holographic protective elements by optical methods is impossible in principle because such a copying will cause the destruction of the elements that complicates their forgery. • One more advantage of this protection system is that protective elements visually look absolutely homogeneous and it is impossible to identify by eye and by any commonly used identifying device (ultra-violet and infra-red radiation, electromagnetic fields, microscopes, etc.) what kind of polarization information is recorded on them. The precise determination of the polarization state of light beams diffracted on the protective elements by traditional polarization optics is a very difficult task. • Authenticity of the protective element can easily be determined only by means of identifying device developed by us. The main analyzing detail of this device is the polarization-holographic element created by us, which enable a full analysis of the polarization state of incoming light to be carried out in real time (simultaneous determination of ellipticity, the directions of rotation and azimuths of a polarization ellipse). These values are compared with the etalon stored in a comparison block of an identifying device and in case of coincidence the identifying device confirms the authenticity of the protective element. The developed system enables essentially to increase a level of protection of important documents, securities and industrial products including existing rainbow holograms at the expense of the use of a code in the form of a combination of polarization state of beams used for recording protective element, the use of polarization-sensitive material of an element with pre-chosen meanings of the reactions to the action of recording light, and also the possibility to change the criterion of authenticity determination for the same element by changing the polarization state of a reading light beam in the identifying device. We have developed an essentially new polarization-holographic system of protection of a reflective type that consist of polarization-holographic protective elements which are glued on protected objects and an identifying device for the determination of authenticity of these elements. The polarization-sensitive material with big values of photoanisotropy that allowed high diffraction efficiency to be received (of the order of 40 - 50 %) has been specially obtained for the protective element recording. For the reception of polarization-holographic protective elements the polarization-sensitive materials specially created by us are used and made in such a manner that they possess predetermined values of the scalar and two vector reactions and to the action of polarized light. The polarization state of the beams diffracted on a protective element depends on the values of these reactions. As a basis the use of available metallized foil which is used in manufacturing rainbow holograms is the most convenient. It has a surface with high optical quality, and also a self-glued layer. A thin layer of adhesive material (about 1 – 2 micrometers) is coated on this foil, which is necessary for the improvement of adhesion of polarization-sensitive emulsion to the metallized surface of a foil. Polarization-sensitive emulsion is made on the basis of a composition of specially treated gelatin and polyvinylpyrrolidone into which the modified disazo dye is introduced. For the modification of disazo dye the special chemical low-temperature refrigerating unit created by us was used. The solution of polarization-sensitive emulsion is coated over an adhesive layer. The protective layer is coated over polarization-sensitive emulsion, for the protection of a code against external influences. The protective elements received by such a technology possess sufficiently high heat-resistance, resistance to atmospheric humidity, and also to ultra-violet radiation. By means of our optical scheme, a code in the form of polarization holograms is recorded on a protective element by the polarization-holographic method. It is possible to obtain protective elements with any predetermined code in the form of the combination of the polarization state of two recording beams. As is known, there is theoretically an infinite set of such combinations which differ from each other by ellipticity, an azimuth of the major axis and a direction of the rotation of a polarization ellipse (actually the number of combinations is approximately 1018). We used DSSP laser (473 nm, output power 400 mW) as a recording (actinic) light source in optical scheme for the recording of the reflection polarization-holographic protective elements. λ/4 waveplates give the possibility any combination of polarization state of the recording beam to be obtained. The similar optical scheme was used for the recording of polarization-holographic elements for the identifying device. In order to establish the authenticity of a protective element the special identifying device has been developed and obtained. The device forms nonactinic reading polarized beam of a diode laser (λ = 635 nm). This beam passes through a quarter wave plate which gives the possibility to change a polarization state of a reading beam. The reading beam fall on reflection polarization-holographic protective element and -1 and +1 orders of diffraction are formed as a result of diffraction on the element. For the analysis of the polarization state of diffracted beams the polarization-holographic elements of anisotropic profile created by us are used which enable all the parameters of polarization ellipses of diffracted beams to be defined simultaneously and in real time. In its turn, the beams diffracted on the protective element falling on the polarization-holographic analyzing elements as a result of which four orders of diffraction are formed from each of them. The intensities of these orders are measured by means of photodetectors. This enables the meanings of the parameters of polarization ellipses (ellipticity, directions of rotation and azimuths) of beams diffracted on the protective element to be received by the formulas obtained by us. The obtained parameters of polarization ellipses have been compared with etalon which is stored in the block of comparison of an identifying device and in case of coincidence the device confirms the authenticity of a protective element. The possibility of the change of polarization state of a reading beam in the identifying device additionally raises the protection level as the polarization state of light beams diffracted on the same protective element depends on the polarization state of a reading beam. Besides, such a possibility allows to change the criterion of authenticity of the same protective element. Let's note that the identifying device does not contain any expensive polarizing elements that essentially reduce its prime cost. This system is simple enough and noise-protected. 1. The technology of the reception of polarization-sensitive materials for reflection polarization-holographic protection elements was developed. 2. The electronic scheme of an identifying device was developed based on the high-quality photodetectors and ADC (analog-to-digital converter). 3. Theoretical model was developed which describes the recording of reflection polarization holograms and the process of diffraction on them. 4. The influence of the properties of polarization-sensitive material (the meanings of scalar and two vector reactions and ) on the polarization state of light beams diffracted on the protective element was investigated. 5. The optical scheme for the recording of polarization-holographic protective elements and the polarization-holographic elements for an identifying device was developed. 6. The industrial technology of reception of reflection polarization-holographic protective elements was created. 7. A pre-production model of the optoelectronic identifying device was developed and obtained for real time determining authenticity of the protective elements. 8. Patent application. Title: The method of recording of code for products protection from forgery and the device for code reading. – Patent priority 16 December 2009, ID № 11606/01. Filing number AP 2009 011606.
GNSF/ST08/1-364Spatial switching of information channels in optical communication networks by means of dynamic polarization holograms2008 State Scientific Grants CompetitionGeorgian National Science Foundation (GNSF) 123000 ლარი01.03.2009 31.08.2011Barbara Kilosanidze George Kakauridze, Yuri Mshvenieradze, Irakli Chaganava "The problem of simultaneous switching of high-speed channels transmitting large volumes of optical information is very actual. It is recognized that the most promising way to solve this problem is switching channels by fully optical methods, without converting optical signals to electrical and back to optical, which allows full and non-blocking switching of a large number of incoming and outgoing optical channels. A new optical switching method based on highly efficient reprogrammable dynamic polarization holograms has been developed in the project. The time of inducing and self-erasing these holograms is much smaller than the time required for connecting the switching channels. In addition, the continuity and arbitrary extension of the connection is achieved by the light beam of the actinic laser inducing the hologram, and the connection is broken by erasing the hologram immediately after the termination of the inducing light. The switching beam is deflected in the required direction at the expense of diffraction on the reprogrammable hologram. Such an approach can be also realized in optical computers of the future. It is also important that the use of dynamic polarization holograms allows to at least double the throughput and switching speed of modern optical cables at the expense of additional coding and selection depending on the polarization state of information, which also provides the opportunity to work with WDM technology and lambda-commutation at the expense of a wide working spectral range of holograms (500 - 1550 nm). In order to create an optical switch, high-efficiency dynamic polarization-sensitive materials for recording hologram should have high sensitivity to polarized light, high anisotropy values, short hologram recording and erasing time, and high diffraction efficiency of the recorded hologram. The advantage of such materials is in the fact that continuous compact low-power diode lasers can be used. A laboratory model of the commutator has been created, in which a dynamic polarization-holographic diffraction grating is used as a switching element. The spatial period and anisotropy distribution in one period of these gratings changes depending on the angle of meeting and the polarization state of the beams of the inducing laser. In the process of diffraction on such a hologram the switching information beam is deviated according to the angular dispersion of the grating and the distribution of anisotropy in its period. If the information beam consists of beams with several wavelengths, then these beams deviate at different angles. However, if the beams are coded according to the polarization state, for example, right or left circular, then they will deviate into different diffraction orders. This reveals the possibility of separating and switching beams with different wavelengths and polarization states. The creation of fully optical fast multi-composition cross-commutator based on dynamic polarization-sensitive materials working in the infrared range of the spectrum is very important and opens a wide market for these technologies. A laboratory model of a multi-composition optical switch based on a matrix of reprogrammable dynamic polarization microholograms has been developed. " "The following results were obtained: The theory of dynamic polarization-holographic recording was developed; A theoretical and experimental study of the recording of dynamic polarization-holographic gratings with different anisotropy profiles and the process of light diffraction on them was carried out. An optical scheme for recording such gratings was developed and created, and the characteristics of dynamic gratings were determined: diffraction efficiency, recording and erasing times, diffraction angle and angular dispersion. The possibility of optical switching of light beams (in the visible and near-infrared spectral region) on a dynamic polarization-holographic grating was demonstrated, based on the diffraction of the light beam on this grating. Switching speed, diffraction efficiency and dynamic range of gratings were determined. The modification of the technology of receiving dynamic polarization-sensitive materials for recording dynamic polarization-holographic gratings was carried out. The effect of the molecular structure of organic dyes and polymers of matrix on the duration and magnitude of the photoanisotropy induction-deleting process was investigated. The targeted synthesis of new dyes and the optimization of polymer matrix were carried out based on the results to be obtained. The method of precize measurement of the rigid-elastic properties of polymer matrices was developed and the corresponding device was created. The influence of the following external factors on the duration of photoanisotropy induction and relaxation was studied: additional incoherent irradiation by actinic light beams with different polarization states and intensities, temperature factor, electric and magnetic fields. The polarization sensitometry system was modified for dynamic polarization sensitive materials. A photometric set-up has been developed and created for the study of kinetics of photoanisotropy induction and relaxation in the samples of the obtained materials. A new method of spatial commutation of optical channels has been developed, which is based on the use of dynamic reprogrammable polarization microholograms as switching elements, and which allows non-blocking optical commutation of the number of channels of the order of 4 X 104. In order to form a matrix of reprogrammable dynamic polarization microholograms, a special positioning block was created for the synchronous control of two circularly orthogonally polarized recording beams, so that we had the opportunity to change the recording grating vector, both in magnitude and direction. It was shown theoretically and experimentally, that the developed method enables to increase the commutation rate and speed at the expense of polarization densification and polarization selection of the channels. The possibility of joint work of such an approach with WDM technology and lambda switching was demonstrated. Based on the obtained results, a laboratory model of a multi-composition optical commutator based on a matrix of reprogrammable dynamic polarization microholograms has been developed. It has been shown that this method enables simultaneous switching 104-105 independent channels with a total performance of 10-20 terabits/s. Conclusion: the method developed in the project provides a perspective to create a fully optical switch for simultaneous non-blocking switching of a large number of channels based on the matrix of the dynamic reprogrammable polarization microholograms as switching elements. " "1. Determination of the relationship between the molecular structure of organic dyes and polymers and the dynamic properties of the material. Targeted synthesis of new organic dyes. 2. Development of a precessional measurement method of rigid-elastic properties of polymer matrices and creation of a device. 3. A photometric device for the study of photoanisotropy induction and relaxation kinetics with a time resolution of up to 10 nanoseconds was created. 4. The technology of obtaining dynamic polarization-sensitive materials was developed. Samples of highly efficient dynamic polarization-sensitive materials with the following characteristics have been obtained: high sensitivity to the inducing actinic polarized light (441 – 488 nm); high rates of anisotropy (20-30%); high resolution (1000 lines/mm and more); short times (0.1 – 1 microsecond) for inducing and erasing sufficient photoanisotropy; Transmittance at a wavelength of 1550 nm is not less than 80%. 5. The technology of receiving dynamic polarization-sensitive materials working in the infrared range up to 2 microns was developed. 6. Dynamic polarization-holographic gratings with different anisotropy profiles, with high diffraction efficiency and short write/erase times, with the angular dispersion have been obtained. A study of the diffraction process was carried out on the received gratings. 7. A new method of spatial commutation of optical channels has been developed, based on the dynamic reprogrammable polarization microholograms as switching elements, and which allows non-blocking optical commutation of channels of the order of 4X104. 8. An optical scheme for receiving a matrix of the reprogrammable dynamic polarization holograms was developed and a working laboratory model of an optical commutator was created. 9. The possibility of polarization densiting and polarization selection of channels is shown. 10. The possibility of switching informative infrared beams (1550 nm) using dynamic polarization holographic gratings is shown. 11. It is experimentally shown the possibility of the commutattor to work in the case of WDM technology and lambda switching. 12. While implementing the project, 11 scientific articles were published in international journals and conference materials; participation in 6 international and domestic conferences; PHD dissertation was defensed. "
GNSF/ST08/1-363Development of the innovative polarimetric method for real-time optical remote sensing and objects recognition 2008 State Scientific Grants CompetitionGeorgian National Science Foundation (GNSF) 122500 ლარი01.03.2009 31.08.2011George Kakauridze Barbara Kilosanidze, Yuri Mshvenieradze, Irakli Chaganava, Vladimer Tarasashvili "Optical methods of remote sensing are very important for economy, ecology, as well as military and counter-terrorism applications. Existing optical remote sensing methods mainly use spectral analysis of light reflected by objects or soil landscape, as well as indicatrix of scattering analysis. Determining the state and degree of polarization of the reflected light provides essential information about the objects and together with the existing methods of remote sensing can significantly increase the accuracy and reliability of detection. This is all the more important because natural light is polarized to one or another degree when reflected from the surface of the object. The state and degree of polarization of the reflected light depends on the physico-chemical properties of the surface from which the light is reflected. Existing polarimetric tools cannot determine the distribution of polarization states in the entire image in real time. Automatic polarimeters are very complex and expensive devices based on moving or electronically controlled optical details. An innovative polarization-holographic method has been suggested in this project to demonstrate the possibilities of increasing the speed, authenticity and accuracy of object recognition in remote sensing based on the analysis of the distribution of the polarization state of light reflected by the object, and also the dispersion of this distribution. A polarization-holographic diffraction element is used as the main analyzing element. An imaging Stokes spectropolarimeter based on such an element have no mechanically or electrically controlled elements. It will be compact, much cheaper and simpler, which is especially important for installation on aircraft. The device's operating speed is limited only by computer processing time. A theoretical model for determining the polarization distribution on the object (taking into account the object's geometrical and physico-chemical properties) and corresponding software were developed, which allows to determine the distribution of all four Stokes parameters, as well as their corresponding values of ellipticity, azimuth, rotation direction and degree of polarization on the image of the detected object and dispersion of this distribution. Determining the polarizing properties of objects with different geometric shapes and made of different materials, as well as different models of objects, was carried out in laboratory conditions under different lighting conditions, and a corresponding database was created. " "The following main results have been obtained in the project: An integral polarization-holographic diffraction element was used for the complete analysis of the polarization state of light in real time. An optical scheme for recording polarization-holographic elements was developed and the technology for receiving such elements was created. Diffraction efficiency of polarization-holographic elements, angular dispersion in visible and near-infrared ranges were determined. An experimental study of the diffraction process was carried out on the obtained elements. The possibility of carrying out a complete analysis of the polarization state of light in real-time by using such an element is demonstrated. Formulas were obtained for determining all the four Stokes parameters through the values of the intensities of the diffracted beams formed in diffraction of the analyzing light on the element. The technology of obtaining polarization-sensitive materials was modified. Such materials are used for recording of high-efficiency polarization-holographic elements. The influence of the molecular structure of organic dyes and polymer matrices on the sensitivity of photoanisotropic materials made on their basis, the amount of anisotropy, the stability, and the spectral range of the material's conductivity was investigated. On this bases the targeted synthesis of new dyes and the optimization of polymer matrix were carried out. The method of precision measurement of the rigid-elastic properties of polymer matrices has been developed and the corresponding device has been created. A study of the kinetics of photoanisotropy induction was carried out in each obtained sample. The polarization sensitometry system was modified to determine the characteristics of polarization sensitive areas. A photometric set-upwas developed and created for the study of photoanisotropy kinetics in the samples of the obtained materials. The working spectral range of the elements has been expanded (500-4000 nm), which allows working in the windows of atmospheric transparency, which results in increasing the range of determining the dispersion of the polarization state distribution, which additionally increases the accuracy and reliability of detection. An innovative polarimetric method has been developed, in which the Imaging Stokes Spectropolarimeter based on the polarization-holographic element and the corresponding laboratory model are used for analyzing the polarization state of light reflected from the object, as well as the distribution of dispersion. Calibration of the laboratory model, experimental determination of accuracy, speed and sensitivity was carried out by using a light field of predetermined polarization state distribution . Appropriate software has been developed that allows us to determine the distribution of all four Stokes parameters, as well as their respective values of ellipticity, azimuth, direction of rotation and degree of polarization in the image of the detected object and dispersion of this distribution. Determining the polarizing properties of objects with different geometric shapes and made of different materials, as well as different models of objects, was carried out in laboratory conditions under different lighting conditions, and a corresponding database has been created. The proposed method allows us to distinguish the polarization state of light reflected from different materials. We used the averaged values of Stokes parameters on the surface of the object as an expression characterizing the material of the sample and its geometric shape, and the value of the average dispersion for the quantitative characterization of the dispersion. The possibility of detecting a useful signal with a predetermined polarization in the background of statistically random noise of the main surface was shown. On the basis of the received conclusions, recommendations were developed on real-time detection and recognition. The proposed method allows the analysis of polarization distribution to be performed not only on static but also on moving objects. " "1. The technology of obtaining highly efficient polarization-sensitive materials was modified in order to expand their functional capabilities. Samples based on different combinations of dyes and polymers have been obtained. 2. An analysis of the influence of the molecular structure of organic dyes on the sensitivity of polarization-sensitive materials made on their basis, the value of achievable anisotropy, stability, and the spectral range of the material's conductivity was carried out. Based on this, a targeted synthesis of new organic dyes was carried out. 3. A study of the relationship between the structure of dyes and polymer matrix molecules and material properties was carried out. The method of precision measurement of the rigid-elastic properties of the polymer was developed and the appropriate measuring device was created. 4. Polarization sensitive materials with improved characteristics are obtained. A study of the kinetics of the induced photoanisotropy was carried out in all samples. The existing system of polarization sensitometry for polarization sensitive materials was modified. We used the received materials for polarization-holographic elements recording. 5. For real time determining the polarization state of light, a highly efficient, 500-4000 nm operating range, the technology of obtaining the polarization-holographic diffraction element has been developed. The diffraction efficiency of the elements, the angular dispersion in the visible and infrared ranges were determined. A process of diffraction on the obtained elements was investigated. 6. A laboratory model of the Stokes spectropolarimeter was developed and created based on only one analyzing element - the polarization-holographic diffraction element for real time determining the state and degree of polarization of light reflected from objects as well as distribution of dispersion. 7. The software has been developed for the automatic analysis of the polarization state and quality of light from different objects and their dispersion dependence. 8. A theoretical model for determining the correlation of geometrical and physico-chemical properties of the object and polarization distribution on them was developed and an experimental study was carried out. 9. An experimental study of the degree of polarization of the reflected light and the distribution of its state was carried out under different lighting conditions, as well as from different materials (metals, dielectrics, etc.). An appropriate database was created. 10. the possibility of detecting a search or array signal with a predetermined polarization against the background of basic noise of a statistically random surface were demonstrated theoretically and experimentally. 11. Detection and recognition criteria were developed for various models based on their polarizing properties, taking into account the dispersion of the polarization of light scattered on them. 12. 11 scientific articles were publishedin international journals and conference proceedings, participation in 6 international and domestic conferences, 1 PHD thesis was defended. "
AR/216/6-450/12 ( № 30/30)Obtaining a new type of funct+B6ionally gradient polymer materials and optical elements based on them2012 State Scientific Grants Competition for Applied ResearchShota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia and Georgian Technical University 206400 ლარი22.04.2013 22.04.2015Levan Nadareishvili Nona Topuridze, Tariel Ebralidze, Ineza Pavlenishvili, Tamar Nakaidze, Barbara Kilosanidze, George Kakauridze "The tasks to be implemented in the project are based on the concept we developed for the first time about the new structural state of thermoplastic (linear) polymers. We introduced the concept of the gradient of relative elongation (degree of stretching) and formulated ideas about a new physical characteristic of linear polymers - a new structural state - a gradient-oriented state. On the basis of the mentioned concept, a new technical solution for the structural modification of thermoplastic polymers was developed, which has no analogues. This is the orientation of linear polymers in the gradient mode, which was first realized by us on a polymer sample with inhomogeneous mechanical field modes. The gradient orientation method allows obtaining FGM by both known approaches - both by creating a chemical composition and a microstructure gradient, which is undoubtedly another positive sign of it. To solve the tasks planned in the project, the following main research methods were used: the method of gradient orientation of polymers; method of determining birefringence and dichroism; polarization sensitometry method; method of determining the diffraction efficiency of gratings; method of determining the change in the polarization state as a result of the transmiting of light through the samples; spectrometric method of research. The gradient orientation process is characterized by high repeatability. In contrast to elements based on polarization-sensitive materials, in which a gradient of birefringence is induced by actinic polarized beam, gradient-oriented optical elements will have very high stability, high values of birefringence and dichroism, as well as the ability to work in a wide spectral range (in particular, according to our preliminary data, in gradient-oriented polyvinyl alcohol samples the birefringence changes is within n  0 – 0.003). As a result of the implementation of the project, the following optical elements were obtained: 1. Pseudodepolarizers. Samples of depolarizers for a wide spectral range of laser radiation were obtained; 2. Phase wave plates and compensators. Samples of high-transmission achromatic compensators and wide-aperture wave plates were obtained on the basis of gradient materials. 3. GB -elements with gradient of birefringence. The technology of receiving high-efficiency reflective GB-elements with the established distribution of the birefringence were developed, on the basis of which the corresponding elements could be manufactured. 4. Diffraction gratings of anisotropic profile. The technology of obtaining diffraction gratings with any anisotropic profile (sinusoidal, parabolic and others) of the birefringence has been developed, which ensures high diffraction efficiency. Such elements work in a wide spectral range from near ultraviolet to infrared. 5. Elements with gradient dichroism (GD-Gradient Dichroism). Highly efficient GD-elements with given distribution of radial and tangential gradient of dichroism have been obtained. " "We have developed a new convenient polarimetric method for determining the distribution of birefringence and linear dichroism in samples of optical polymer materials, including gradient polymer materials, based on the ""C"" type polarization-holographic grating, by means of measuring the ratio of the intensities of the diffracted beams during the diffraction of the monochromatic light passing through the sample on the polarization-holographic grating. A theoretical model was developed and a laboratory model of the corresponding device was made. According to the theoretical model, it is possible to determine birefringence and linear dichroism separately: we used a light beam with a wavelength outside the absorption band for determining birefringence, and light beam with a wavelength located in the absorption band of the film chromophore is used for determining linear dichroism. Quantification of birefringence and linear dichroism distribution over the samples was carried out for samples with different gradient orientation modes. Different types of polarization optical elements were created based on stretched polymer films. Pseudo-depolarizers were obtained on the basis of polyvinyl alcohol films with a uniform distribution of the birefringence. We used 30 micron thick films with 100% uniform stretching at 900С and subsequent uniform cooling. For real-time determination of the Stokes parameters and the degree of polarization (DoP) of the light passing through the depolarizer samples, a device was developed based on the polarization-holographic element created by us. The dependence of the pseudo-depolarizer's ability to depolarize on the number of layers of uniformly stretched polymer films was determined (in the case of 6 layers, DoP ≈2%). Compensators were obtained on the basis of uniaxial, gradient oriented polymer films. In such films, the gradient of the birefringence is induced accordingly. When the birefringence value is reached, which corresponds to the difference between the ordinary and extraordinary rays equal to the whole number of wavelengths of the illuminating light, interference bands appear in the film, which can be observed between the crossed polarizers. On the basis of a uniaxially oriented polymer film, polymer analogs of λ/4 and λ/2 wave phase plates were created. Areas of film were used such that these samples gave a phase difference of π/2 for light with wavelengths of 635 nm, 532 nm, and 473 nm. Areas of films were also selected that gave a phase difference π at the same wavelengths. These wavelengths were chosen as the common wavelengths of lasers. A comparison of the quality of our received and factory phase plates has been made and a good coincidence of quality has been obtained. More over some phase plates received by us have better characteristics compared to the factory ones. To obtain reflective elements with gradient of dichroism and birefringence, we used oriented polyvinyl films of appropriate thickness, linear dichroism and birefringence values, which were placed on the surface of a special metallized, reflective polymer film. In this way, dichroid reflective half-wave and quarter-wave phase plates, as well as a reflective compensator with gradient distribution of the birefringence were obtained. Stable and dynamic diffraction gratings with anisotropic profile were recorded in a liquid polymerizable material by means of an ultrasound standing wave and their characteristics were determined. The creation of polarization optical elements based on stretched polymer films creates the prospect of replacing expensive crystalline small-aperture polarization optical elements with inexpensive polymer film elements of any large aperture. " "1. Optical isotropic polymer films are obtained. 2. Gradient deformation of polymer films was carried out. 3. The relationship was established between the quantitative dependence of birefringence and dichroism distribution on the chemical structure of polymer films and the mode of gradient orientation (relative elongation, temperature, deformation rate). 4. Optical elements (pseudodepolarizers, phase wave plates, compensators, elements with gradient of dichroism and birefringence, diffraction grating of anisotropic profile) were created on the basis of gradient materials. 5. The diffraction efficiency of the diffraction gratings was determined and the polarization state of diffracted beams was controlled. 6. A gradient orientation device was designed and manufactured in zone heating mode. 7. A thermal camera and a set of clamps were made for the P-5 stretching machine. 8. A polarization-holographic photometric device was made for determining the polarization characteristics of optical materials. 9. 3 scientific articles have been published; participation in an International conference. "
AR/220/4-100/12 (№ 30/22)Development of an innovative real-time polarimetric device for determining the distribution of stressed state in different constructions and components2012 State Scientific Grants Competition for Applied ResearchShota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia and Georgian Technical University D8204000 ლარი15.04.2013 -15.04.2015George Kakauridze Barbara Kilosanidze, Yuri Mshvenieradze, Irakli Chaganava "Quantitative estimation of the distribution of both load and residual mechanical stress in various details and constructions is an extremely important task for various fields of science and technology. The existing methods have certain limitations both in terms of the type of research materials and in terms of the accuracy of measurements and the ability to determine the nature of stress. In fact, the field of possible application of existing methods is very limited, and most of these methods require a considerable amount of measurement time. Despite the diversity of existing methods (for example, tensometric, X-ray, acoustoelasticity, holographic interferometry, photoelasticity methods), the development of a non-destructive, technological, sensitive, convenient, universal and real-time method for determining the distribution of stress states is very important To solve this problem, an innovative real-time polarimetric device is developed in the project for determining the distribution of the mechanical stress state in various structures and details based on the analysis of the polarization state distribution of the light reflected from the objects. It is known that induced mechanical stress in solid bodies causes a change in the dielectric permeability tensor in them, which, within the Hooke's law, causes a change in the optical properties of the object. The polarization state of light reflected from the surface of the object or passing through it is very sensitive to the change of the optical properties. The determination of the change in the polarization state in the presence of stress in solid bodies allows a quantitative relationship between the magnitude of the stress and changes in the polarization state to be established. In order to determine the change in the polarization state in real time, a polarization-holographic diffraction element developed by us was used, which allows to carry out a complete analysis of the polarization state of light reflected from the surface of the object and, accordingly, to determine the distribution of the change in the polarization state and dispersion of this distribution in the image of objects in real time. In the process of diffraction, the element decomposes the light falling on it into orthogonal circular and linear bases. Simultaneous measurement of the intensities of the four diffraction orders by means of photodetectors and software developed in the project allows to obtain the polarization state of the analyzing light (all the four Stokes parameters) in real time. The use of a unique polarization-holographic element for the analysis of light polarization is fundamentally new and has the following advantages compared to the existing methods: it allows the analysis of light polarization to be performed in real time without use of rotating or electronically controlled optical details, and the device based on this element will not have internal reflections, which eliminates the distortions of the polarization state of light and increases the accuracy of the measurement. It is possible to illuminate an object with natural light and not only coherent lighting is necessary. In addition, the proposed method is quite universal, since it allows to measure the stress in structures made of different materials: both transparent and opaque, both ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic, metals or dielectrics. The laboratory model created for the implementation of the method is distinguished by its compactness, relative simplicity and relatively low price. This method can be used in various fields of science and technology: in construction mechanics, in the construction of new detailes and machines, in the construction and production of military equipment, and also in the monitoring and diagnosis of already built constructions, for example, dams, buildings, bridges, etc. in order to avoid possible accidents and disasters. From this point of view the relevance and importance of the method developed is indisputable. " "The following main results have been obtained in the project: A polarimetric device has been developed, in which only one integral polarization-holographic diffraction element, developed by us, is used as the analyzing element of the polarization state. A modification of the technology for obtaining high-efficiency stable polarization-sensitive materials necessary for writing these elements was carried out, which meant increasing the polarity of the azo dye molecule and the polymer matrix by strengthening the electrostatic interactions between these molecules and the synthesis of azo polymers by immobilizing the azochromophore component on the polymer matrix with a strong covalent bond. A new polarization-holographic sensitometry method was developed for determining the characteristics of polarization-sensitive materials. Appropriate laboratory photometric set-up was created and the characteristics of the materials obtained in the project were investigated. The optical scheme of recording polarization-holographic diffraction elements has been developed and the technology of obtaining elements has been created. An experimental study of the process of diffraction on the element was carried out, taking into account the characteristics of the obtained polarization-sensitive materials. It is shown the possibility of carring out a real-time complete analysis of the polarization state of light using such an element, by simultaneously measuring the intensities of four diffracted beams formed by the element, using formulas for determining all four Stokes parameters and the developed software. A theoretical model has been developed which establishes the connection between the polarization state of light reflected from the object and the uniaxial and biaxial mechanical stresses in the object. A special device based on two hydraulic jacks has been developed for creating the dosed uniaxial and biaxial stresses. A digital photometric scheme for determining the polarization state distribution of the light reflected from the sample was developed and manufactured. A laboratory model of the device was created. Its adjustment, calibration, accuracy and sensitivity were experimentally determined using a predetermined light polarization state. Appropriate software was developed, which allows to determine the distribution of all four Stokes parameters, as well as their corresponding values of ellipticity, direction of rotation and degree of polarization on the image of the research object and the dispersion of this distribution under illumination by different laser wavelength (for two wavelengths 532 and 635 nm). Determination of the distribution of mechanical uniaxial and biaxial stresses in samples of different materials (steel, concrete, brick, aluminum, dural and others) was carried out in laboratory conditions, depending on the dosed load. A database has been created. " "1. The technology of obtaining highly efficient stable polarization-sensitive materials was developed, which involves increasing the polarity of the azo dye molecule and the polymer matrix to strengthen the interconnections between these molecules and the synthesis of main-chain or side-chain type azopolymers. 2. A new polarization sensitometry method was developed and a laboratory photometric device was created for the quantitative determination of photoanisotropic and photogyrotropic characteristics of polarization-sensitive materials. 3. A theoretical model has been developed on the connection between the polarization state of light reflected from the object and uniaxial and biaxial mechanical stresses in the object . 4. An optical scheme for recording integral polarization-holographic diffraction elements was developed and created. Polarization-sensitive materials obtained in the project were used for recording such an elements. 5. To create uniaxial and biaxial stresses in the samples, a device was developed for applying dosed loads based on hydraulic jacks and manufactured. 6. A digital photometric scheme has been developed and created for determining the distribution of the polarization state of light on the object surface. 7. A laboratory model of the device for determining the distribution of mechanical stresses in the samples based on the determination of the distribution of the polarization state of light on the sample surface was developed, manufactured and calibrated. 8. Appropriate software has been developed. 9. An experimental study of the relationship between mechanical uniaxial and biaxial stresses in samples of different materials and the change in the polarization state of light reflected from their surface, as well as the dependence of this distribution dispersion on different loads, was carried out, and compared with the theoretical model developed in the project. A database was created for samples made of different materials. 10. The criteria for determining the stress distribution were developed. 11. It was prepared and published 4 scientific articles in International journals and conference materials, participation in 3 International conferences. "
№FR/292/6-120/13The phenomenon of non-polarized light in the polarization holographic interferometry : recording, the recording medium, applicationState scientific grants competition for fundamental research in 2013Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia99600 ლარი03.31.2014-03.31.2016Valentina Shaverdova Valentina Shaverdova, Vladimer Tarasashvili, Ana Purtseladze; Svetlana Petrova, Nino Obolashvili "The increasing use of holographic methods in the field of science and production has put on the agenda the issue of further development and improvement of the method of polarization holographic interferometry. The purpose of the scientific project was: to study the phenomenon of unpolarized coherent light in polarization-holographic interferometry; Theoretical and experimental studies of the implementation of an a posteriori ellipsometric experiment, taking into account the vector characteristics of the wave field reconstructed from the hologram, improving methods for obtaining and studying a new type of polarization-sensitive, highly efficient, dynamic and stable registration areas; Optimization of anisotropic and holographic properties of promising carriers, solving problems of polarization-holographic interferometry using a non-polarized coherent light source. Within the framework of the project, theoretical and experimental research tasks were fulfilled: the theoretical conditions for conducting an a posteriori ellipsometric experiment on a wave field reconstructed from a penetrating and reflecting hologram are determined, the state and degree of polarization of the light field is formed by a polarizing system placed in a non-stationary stressed field; The refractive indices of the object in the directions of the main normal of tension and the angle between the direction of the main tension of the stress-strained object and the abscissa axis were determined separately, both in the case of penetrating and reflecting holograms (interferograms). The problems of detection of anisotropy and ellipsometric analysis of a purely deformed state of an isotropic object in the initial state and a deformation-diffuse object are solved. It is theoretically shown that the phenomenon of using a non-polarized light source is a single-exposure, alternative method of multi-exposure polarization-holographic interferometry. Devices for determining the vector parameters of recording materials by photoanisotropic-gyrotropic, polarization-holographic, polarized-luminescent, and ellipsometric methods have been created; glasses activated by ionizing radiation have been studied. The prospects of their use as recording pads in polarization holography are shown, the regions obtained on the basis of liquid crystal polymers are investigated; Lyotropic polymeric liquid crystal compositions exhibit the properties of an optical shutter. Laboratory, digital systems for processing and converting polarization-holographic interferometric information have been created. An acceptable methodology for the values of research parameters has been developed. The program provides for the possibility of calculating the numerical values of the absorption anisotropy and the double beam at each point of the object; The anisotropic-gyrotropic vector and scalar reactions were determined by the method of polarization-holographic interferometry, visualization and polarization-holographic color copying of a holographic image recorded in the invisible radiation zone. The new method developed within the framework of the project - phenomenon of unpolarized light in polarization-holographic interferometry, allows to perform a posteriori ellipsometric analysis on the received interferograms without information loss and distortion. This ensures their decoding and interpretation of the research event. Also, it is important that in the case of using this method, the marginal resolution of the interferometric device increases dramatically - it is possible to reveal the contour details of the surface relief, which cannot be distinguished by other methods. The research of areas obtained on the basis of photoactive liquid crystal polymers containing photochromic, anisotropic and fluorescent dopants allowed us to significantly expand the scope of use of highly efficient photoanisotropic-gyrotropic recording areas. The use of such materials has a great future as this area of science develops rapidly and efficiently. Results have been published in refereed journals and presented at international conferences." "Holographic interferometry is one of the main and promising areas of optical holography. In a short time, it has become a powerful research method with significant practical benefits, not only in the physical, chemical, engineering, medical and human sciences, but also in the industrial field. The unique possibilities of holographic interferometry determine its use in various research and practical tasks. In this aspect, the use of an unpolarized source of coherent light in the processes of polarization-holographic recording is of great interest. The aim of the project was: 1. Study of the phenomenon of non-polarized coherent light in polarization-holographic interferometry; theoretical and experimental research of realization of the a posterior ellipsometric experiment regarding the vector characteristics of the wave and field recovered from the hologram. 2. Perfection of methods of receiving and researching new type of polarization-sensitive, highly efficient, dynamic and stable recording areas. 3. Solving polarization-holographic interferometry problems using a non-polarized coherent light source. To achieve the set goals, the following research and technological tasks were set and implemented: 1. A theoretical study of the implementation of an a posteriori ellipsometric experiment on the characteristics of the wave field vector recovered from the polarization hologram. The object of the research was a polarization interference image (interferogram). A new method of polarization-holographic interferometry was developed to carry out the research - the use of a non-polarized coherent light source in the processes of polarization-holographic recording. A posteriori, polarization-holographic ellipsometric analysis of polarization interferograms and interpretation of the interference image (interferogram) were performed. It is shown that after imposing certain restrictions on the isotropic, anisotropic and gyrotropic photoreactions of the polarization-sensitive carrier, the polarization hologram of any anisotropic-gyrotropic object obtained using a non-polarized coherent light source is informatively identical to the object, and it is possible to compare the vector characteristics of the wave field recovered from the hologram in the desired interval of time and space. On the basis of Jones' modified vector-matrix method, the state of polarization of the light field formed by the polarizing system placed in the non-stationary tension field has been investigated and studied, and it has been shown that the non-stationary anisotropic optical system The degree of polarization of the polarized light spread in it is directly related to the time profile of non-stationary processes. Also, a theoretical approach was developed that allows us to determine the refractive indices of the object in the directions of the main tension normals separately and, accordingly, to conduct the analysis of polarization-holographic interferometric information. 2. Adoption and research of highly effective dynamic and stable recording materials. The object of research was a new type of highly efficient polarization-sensitive materials. Optical schemes were developed and laboratory equipment was created for quantitative measurements of photoanisotropic-gyrotropic parameters induced in recording materials by polarization-holographic, ellipsometric and polarized luminescence methods; The method of sensitometry of photoanisotropic-gyrotropic parameters was developed, which allows us to obtain the numerical values of induced linear absorption anisotropy and double beam refraction. For the first time, an important vector phenomenon induced in the photoanisotropic recording material of the hologram − polarized luminescence − was investigated. The subject of the research was organic dyes with different structures. The results of the research conducted to obtain highly effective recording materials based on organic dyes showed that the polarization intensity of the dyes depends on their chemical structure and the chemical activity of the used matrix, on the technological mode of obtaining areas, the type of solvent, the hardness of the matrix, the latency, and the spectrum of actinic radiation. Different subtypes of azo dyes, including dyeing azo dyes, were selected for detailed study. Neutral - gelatin, polyvinyl alcohol, polystyrene, as well as chemically active matrices were used as polymer matrices. The ellipsometric method is an analytical, non-destructive express method of light-induced anisotropy-gyrotropy research in a polarization-sensitive area, which allows high-precision measurement and control of vector parameters in real time. Measurements were made using a zero-ellipsometer (PCSA scheme) constructed by the project's main contractors. In order to implement the tasks set in the project, various types of glass activated by ionizing radiation have been selected and tested. The phenomenon of anisotropic bleaching of semiconducting selencadmium glass KS-19 has been revealed and studied in detail. Fine-grained photoemulsions sensitized with various dyes were also investigated and it was found that for a specific sensitizer, upon exposure to actinic linear polarization radiation and subsequent exposure of the sample in special detectors, the exposed layer exhibits ""negative character"" (darkening) dichroism. The detected effect was called induced sensitized photoanisotropy (ISF). The novelty of the project was the use of such promising materials as polarization-sensitive carriers, such as areas obtained on the basis of liquid-crystalline (LC) polymers. Polymers occupy a special place among these substances. An experimental study was carried out to obtain lyotropic polymer TC compositions to which an alkaline mixture of soluble salts of higher fatty acids with the general formula СН3(СН2)nCOONa was added. The technology of obtaining registration areas was developed based on the homologous series of new fluorescent markers (luminescent dyes) - aminoanthrapyridones sulfochlorides (AAP), which were obtained on the basis of directed synthesis. The dependence of the polarization-luminescence properties of these dyes on the molecular structure has been studied. 3. Solving some problems of polarization-holographic interferometry with a new method. To achieve the goals set in the project, the existing schemes were modified mainly in the lasers and reference cone polarization state converting tracts; Non-polarized coherent light laser sources, both continuous and pulsed, were placed in the laser block. In order to determine the values of vector characteristics of the object, a laboratory digital photometric system was created; The method of obtaining the values of the research parameters was developed. The laboratory digital system of information processing and conversion consists of three main modules: 1. Optical-mechanical, serves to receive a polar "1. Developed and created: 1.1. Laboratory equipment for determination of photoanisotropic-gyrotropic parameters by polarization-holographic methods. 1.2. Laboratory equipment for determination of photoanisotropic-gyrotropic parameters by ellipsometric methods. 1.3. Laboratory equipment for determination of photoanisotropic-gyrotropic parameters by polarized luminescence method. 1.4. Interferometric demonstration laboratory device for determining scalar and vector reactions of recording material. 1.5. A laboratory demonstration device for the study of microstructured surface relief. 1.6. Optical circuits with a new method of recording polarization-holographic interferograms in penetrating and incident cones. 1.7. Demonstration laboratory scheme for determination of pure stress state of an object. 1.8. Demonstration laboratory scheme for the detection of anisotropy of strain-deformed diffuse objects using the polarization holographic method. 1.9. Polarizing-holographic copies of polarizing optical elements. 1.10. A hologram recorded in the invisible area of radiation. 1.11. Laboratory digital system of information processing and transformation. 2. Theoretical models were developed and theoretical research tasks were implemented: 2.1. Using a coherent source of non-polarized light, the theoretical conditions for conducting an a posteriori ellipsometric experiment on the wave field reconstructed from the penetrating and reflecting hologram were determined. 2.2. A model representation of the non-stationary depolarizing optical system was implemented and the state and degree of polarization of the light field formed by the polarizing system placed in the non-stationary tension field was determined. 2.3. A theoretical approach was developed and the refractive indices of the object in the directions of the main normal of tension and the angle between the direction of the main tension of the stressed-deformed object and the abscissa axis were separately determined, both in the case of penetrating and reflective holograms (interferograms). 2.4. It is theoretically shown that the phenomenon of using a non-polarized light source is a single-exposure, alternative method of multi-exposure polarization-holographic interferometry. 2.5. The pure strain state of the isotropic object in the initial state was determined and the ellipsometric analysis of the interferograms was performed. 2.6. A three-dimensional photoanisotropic is a theoretical model was developed. Results presentation materials: theoretical models; analytical images; exposure curves; Publications. 3. Search and research works were carried out, technologies and technological modes were developed: 3.1. Researched and accepted: 1) registration materials based on organic dyes. 2) Areas based on semiconducting colored glasses and activated inorganic glasses. 3) registration materials based on fine-grained photoemulsions of silver halides. 4) Samples based on photoactive liquid crystal polymers. 5) Materials based on different types of luminescent substances. 6) Polarization-sensitive recording areas, which were obtained by introducing monoazo dye indicators - synthesized homologues of methyl orange - into the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) polymer matrix. 3.2. Investigated and studied: 1) an important vector phenomenon induced in the hologram photoanisotropic recording material – polarized luminescence. 2) Dependence of the polarization intensity of organic dyes on their chemical structure and chemical activity of the used matrix, on the technological mode of obtaining the areas, on the type of solvent, on the hardness of the matrix, on latensification, on the spectrum of actinic radiation. 3) Dependence of the photoanisotropic characteristics of the areas created on the basis of different classes of organic dyes on the molecular structure of the dyes and the used polymer matrices. 4) different types of glass activated by ionizing radiation. 5) effects of gyrotropy in photochromic glasses; Nonlinear anisotropic absorption of orange and yellow glasses. 6) Directional change of the luminescence spectrum in light-sensitive compositions of luminescent, polarization-sensitive material, by introducing different activators into the compositions. 3.3. The following were developed: 1) the method of photoanisotropic-gyrotropic parameters sensitometry. 2) the technology of obtaining such polarizing-luminescent compositions, which included dendrimer PAMAM. 3) technological modes of varying the photo-anisotropic parameters of materials obtained on the basis of silver halides within wide limits. 4) the technology of obtaining registration areas based on the homologous series of new fluorescent markers (luminescent dyes) - aminoanthrapyridones sulfochlorides (AAP), obtained on the basis of directed synthesis. 5) The developed technology allowed us to obtain the technology of making composite transparent polymer films - the introduction of various activators together with liquid crystals into the composition. 6) The technology of making registration areas based on inorganic pigments. Material describing the results: registration materials; interferograms; Spectral and exposure graphs of vector parameters of samples; Publications. 4. 5 scientific works were prepared and published for publication. 5. Participation in the conference International The 36th PIERS, Prague, 2015, 06-09 July."
№ FR/316/6-120/14"Polarized lum inescence phenomenon in holographic memory problems: researces, the prospect of application"State scientific grants competition for fundamental research in 2014Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia99 700 ლარი 04.05.2015-04.05.2017Vladimer Tarasashvili Vladimer Tarasashvili, Valentina Shaverdova, Ana Purtseladze; Svetlana Petrova, Nino Obolashvili "Along with the development of information technologies, the issue of creating information systems of a new type and their implementation by effective and convenient means is becoming increasingly important. One of the promising areas of development is the transition to universal methods in data processing problems. storage and processing, as well as the creation of optical memory. These tasks determined the purpose of this project. The purpose of the project: theoretical and experimental study of the possibility of implementing an information element based on the phenomenon of polarized luminescence by various vector methods; Obtaining highly efficient, polarization-sensitive luminescent dynamic and stable recording areas; Improvement of research methods and optimization of their anisotropic-gyrotropic, luminescent (maximum excitation, high quantum yield) and holographic (diffraction efficiency) properties. Scientific and technological tasks: Theoretical study of the phenomenon of induced anisotropy-gyrotropy in polarization-sensitive luminescent regions by combined vector methods. Polarization-sensitive luminescent, high-performance areas have been obtained and experimentally studied. A study of the prospects for using information elements based on the phenomenon of polarized luminescence in scientific and practical problems. The studies were conducted for two cases: 1) in the polarization-holographic experiment, the objective field is partially linearly polarized. 2) The objective field is partially circularly polarized. In both cases, the reference wave is unpolarized. The scientific novelty of the project lies in the fact that a new type of materials can be used in polarization (vector) holography, the luminescence spectrum of which reflects the state of polarization of the acting (actinic) radiation. This significantly expands the scope of polarization holography, in particular, the use of matrices in the tasks of creating a multiplexer / demultiplexer device for a multichannel optical fiber - to combine information channels into separate devices; At the same time, it compensates for the deficit of polarization-sensitive carrier regions, which significantly hindered the use of the polarization-holographic method in scientific and practical problems. Theoretical and experimental studies carried out within the framework of the project contributed greatly to understanding the nature of the interaction of polarized light with the environment. This made it possible to expand the understanding of the anisotropic nature of absorption and luminescence centers in research areas. New information has been obtained on the structure of macromolecular organic compounds and semiconductor ferrodiamines (phototropic regions), organic dyes, their composition and biological pigments, their transformations in physicochemical reactions under the action of actinic light. Based on the information obtained, it is possible to determine the anisotropic characteristics of the photosensitive centers using theoretical relationships obtained by the main executors of the project, resulting in highly efficient, polarization-sensitive recording areas. on the basis of which optical elements with unique properties can be used for high-quality polarization-holographic memory of information and for express analysis of three-dimensional polarizability and variable states of elements. It is also possible to create new types of markers and microprobes in biochemistry and medicine. The results have been published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at international conferences." "Among the diverse classes of polarization-sensitive regions, substances with special spectral properties occupy a prominent place. Among them, the areas capable of one of the most sensitive and complex optical phenomena - polarized luminescence - are worth mentioning separately. The interest in this type of polarization-sensitive areas is caused by the fact that their use in the tasks of creating information systems allows data to be registered in any part of the spectrum (absorption spectrum), and their reading is carried out in the entire spectral range of the carrier's luminescence, simultaneously. Depending on the interests of the given task, it is possible to vary the frequency of actinic radiation, both at the stage of recording and information reading. The objectives of the implemented scientific project were: theoretical and experimental study of the possibility of implementing an information-carrying element based on the phenomenon of polarized luminescence using various vector methods; Obtaining highly efficient, polarization-sensitive luminescent dynamic and stable recording areas. Improvement of methods for studying their anisotropic-gyrotropic, luminescent (maximum excitation, high quantum yield) and holographic (diffraction efficiency) properties and optimization of these properties; Investigation of the prospects for using an information element with the ability of polarized luminescence in scientific and practical problems. To achieve the goals set in the project, the following scientific and technological tasks were identified and implemented: Task 1. Theoretical study of the phenomenon of induced anisotropy-gyrotropy in polarization-sensitive luminescent regions. The subject of the study was an interference image formed by various cones of the elementary radiation field of the phosphor - a luminescent polarization hologram, arising from the fact that the light of induced luminescence in this area is always partially polarized (Weigert effect, 1920) two cases of anisotropy-gyrotropy for induced luminescence were carried out in the polarization-sensitive region: 1) in the polarization-holographic experiment, the objective field is partially linearly polarized, 2) the objective field is partially circularly polarized. In both cases, the reference (reference) wave is unpolarized light. Research by the project participants showed that a posteriori ellipsometric experiments on the vector characteristics of the wave field reconstructed from a polarization hologram are possible only with the use of unpolarized reference and reference waves in the process of recording a hologram. It is important that in the course of accomplishing this task, a method was developed for measuring circular luminescence and circular two-beam refraction of light-induced gyrotropy induced by circular actinic radiation in polarization-sensitive luminescent regions; Another precise and highly sensitive vector method - ellipsometry - was used to determine the parameters of induced anisotropy-gyrotropy in luminous regions. This method uses the phenomenon of changing the state of luminescence polarization, which occurs in the case of refraction (transmission ellipsometry) or reflection (reflection ellipsometry) of exciting polarized light in the system under study. As part of the project, a mathematical model has been developed that makes it possible to relate the experimentally measured ellipsometric angles of the optical system under study with the real physical parameters of the system. Task 2. Obtaining and experimental research of polarization-sensitive luminescent, highly effective platforms. During the execution of the task: − Optical schemes have been developed and laboratory installations have been developed for quantitative measurements of photoanisotropy-gyrotropic parameters induced in polarization-sensitive luminescent recording materials by various polarization-holographic methods. −A new polarization-holographic method for studying anisotropic and gyrotropic characteristics of polarized luminescence induced in a polarization-sensitive luminophore was developed, allowing to obtain a picture of the spectrum of polarization-sensitive luminescence, to identify luminescence centers capable of photoinduced anisotropy, and to determine their anisotropic properties. After the termination of the irradiation, the realization of the specified task became possible by recording the spectrum of polarized luminescence induced in the polarization-sensitive phosphor, on the created high-efficiency polarization-sensitive non-luminescent areas. executors of the project; These materials are characterized by high photoanisotropic sensitivity in a wide spectral range. −The technology for obtaining polymer films containing transparent dyes (MPD) is developed, and compositions based on these dyes are created. In order to evaluate the spatial distribution of molecules and to identify the probability of hypothetical interactions or connections between molecules, quantum-chemical modeling of the obtained composition was carried out by the MM2 energy minimization method in the Chem3D Ultra program, full of steric energy (TSE values were used as the main evaluation criterion). The most stable conformers for each molecule were identified, and then models of spatial distribution of molecules in compositions were modeled: [TSE(PK)=26.47; TSE(LEP)=15.69; TSE(MPD)=0.5182; Итого: TSE(PK+LEP+MPD)=24.1449]. According to the results obtained, there is no place in the composition for the formation of a chemical complex, the molecules are separated from each other, although the composition behaves as a single integral system. Note that, despite the absence of chemical bonds, the components of the composition significantly affect each other, although their spatial distribution allows an individual oscillator to independently absorb and emit activating radiation. − Other high-molecular compounds - the homologous series of diaminoanthradipyridone disulfochlorides obtained by directed synthesis - have also been studied. − In the course of the project, polarizing-luminescent materials of different physical and chemical nature were developed, including polarizing-luminescent compositions, which included both natural and synthetic polymers, including luminescent polymer (LEP), specially synthesized high-molecular (in including macrocyclic dyes, dendrimer. Based on the results of the studies, we can conclude that there is a very wide field of research to obtain materials for polarization-luminescent holograms. The results of the conducted research give us the basis to conclude, that there is a very wide field of research to obtain materials for polarization-luminescent holograms. Even within the scope of this research, we made sure that:a) we have the ability to shift the emission (luminescence) maxima in a wide spectral range. −For the first time, polarized radiation induced by lase "1. Optical schemes of laboratory equipment were developed and created: 1.1. Optical scheme for measuring induced anisotropy-gyrotropy in luminescent polarization-sensitive regions. 1.2.The optical scheme of the laboratory equipment based on the UM-2 monochromator, for measuring the anisotropic-gyrotropic parameters of polarized luminescence by the polarization- holographic method. 1.3. The optical scheme of the laboratory equipment based on the ИСП-51 spectrograph, for measuring the anisotropic-gyrotropic parameters of polarized luminescence by the polarization-holographic method. 1.4. The optical scheme of the laboratory equipment - spectroellipsometer - for measuring the anisotropic-gyrotropic parameters of polarized luminescence by the ellipsometric method. 1.5. A mock-up of a laboratory setup for an operational luminescent polarization holographic memory system. 1.6. Laboratory mock-up and principle optical scheme of a luminescent polarization-holographic collerator. 1.7. Holographic polarizing-luminescent microscope principle optical scheme. 1.8. Laboratory equipment for the implementation of the technological process of compositions in a variable electrostatic field. 1.9. Latenification laboratory equipment. 1.10. A three-dimensional ultrahigh-capacity luminescent polarization-holographic multi-channel memory element was created. 1.11. A laboratory sample of a luminescent polarization-holographic meser with an anisotropic profile was made. 1.12. A demonstration hologram of image visualization was produced. 2. Theoretical studies were carried out and theoretical models were developed: 2.1. Investigation of the possibility of realizing an information-carrying (memory) element based on the phenomenon of polarized luminescence. The object of research was the interference image formed by different cones of the elementary field of luminophore radiation - a luminescent polarization hologram. The phenomenon of photoanisotropy and photogyrotropy in three-dimensional areas. The research was conducted for two cases: 1) in the polarization-holographic experiment, the objective field is partially linearly polarized, 2) the objective field is partially circularly polarized. 2.2. A new method of measuring circular luminescence and circular birefringence of light-induced gyrotropy induced by circular actinic radiation in polarization-sensitive luminescent areas was developed. 2.3. A new method of determining anisotropic-gyrotropic parameters and sensitometry of areas capable of polarized luminescence was developed. The method was based on a consistent system of polarization-sensitometric measurements in photoanisotropically sensitive areas, which is based on the construction of exposure curves of induced anisotropic and gyrotropic characteristics. 2.4. A mathematical model was created that allows us to connect the experimentally measured ellipsometric angles of the research optical system with the real physical parameters of the system. 2.5. A theoretical study and analysis of the state and quality of polarization of non-stationary, rapidly changing fields was carried out. 2.6. A theoretical study and analysis of the luminescence polarization spectra of petroleum-containing and other natural bitumen was carried out, based on the recording and measurement of the luminescence polarization degree or anisotropy coefficient. 2.7. A new methodology for theoretical and experimental research of luminescent areas has been developed based on Jones's modified vector apparatus. Material presenting the results: theoretical models; Analytical images for calculating values of anisotropic-gyrotropic parameters; exposure curves; Publications. 3. Search and research works were carried out, technologies and technological modes were developed: 3.1. Through directed synthesis: new 24-membered macrocyclic polyazomethine dyes (MPD); High molecular compounds - homologous series of diaminoanthradipyridone disulfochlorides; High molecular compounds - dendrimers, related to the synthesis of three-dimensional superbranched polymers and oligomers; Luminescent dyes of the aminoanthrapyridone sulfochloride series (ClSO2)2-ААР-R; (ClSO2)2-1,4-di-AAP-R and (ClSO2)2-1,5-di-AAP-R, from which the butyl component was selected . 3.2. Researched and adopted: highly efficient polarization-sensitive non-luminescent areas; multi-component compositions based on different classes of organic dyes; compositions based on fine-grained silver halides (in the latter, for the first time, we have identified a new anisotropic-gyrotropic effect - induced sensitized photoanisotropy - ISF); Polarizing-luminescent materials of different physico-chemical nature, including polarizing-luminescent compositions, which included both natural and synthetic polymers, including luminescent polymer (LEP); specially synthesized high molecular (including macrocyclic) dyes with different structures; Biopigments: derivatives of chlorophyll, carotene, betanin, anthocyanin, by chromatographic and extraction methods; Transparent polymer films containing biopigments developed on the basis of technological approaches. 3.3. Investigated and studied: anisotropy of quantum systems of different types of recording areas, induced by polarized light - photoanisotropy; dependence of photoanisotropic-gyrotropic characteristics of luminescent areas created on the basis of high-molecular organic compounds on the molecular structure of dyes, used solvent and polymer matrices; Dependence of anisotropic-gyrotropic characteristics on the chemical composition of glass in areas obtained based on luminescent semiconductor colored glasses of different compositions; dependence of anisotropic-gyrotropic characteristics on the chemical composition of glass in areas obtained on the basis of high-energy colored glasses; polarization-sensitive in a wide spectral range, anisotropic-area obtained as a result of different fluorescent dye compositions Dependence of gyrotropic parameters on chemical composition, solvents and matrix; photoinduced anisotropy-gyrotropy parameters in the research areas, dependence on the influence of factors (temperature, electrical, etc.); The state of polarization of bitumen luminescence extracted from an oil field (fossil), as well as extracted in a solution, using a luminescent information-carrying element; Use of luminescent polarization-sensitive areas as invisible markers of banknotes, price documents; polarization-luminescent properties of some biological pigments; Another main feature of the polarized luminescent hologram is that it is essentially a dynamic hologram. Diffraction efficiency of anisotropic-gyrotropic mesers - it was established that the obtained mesers represent a resonant dynamic hologram. 3.4. The following was developed: 1) a new technology for obtaining luminescent polarization-sensitive information-carrying areas, which includes, first of all, obtaining a pre-selected concentration and volume solution of dyes and dopants
№ 6069 და MTCU/78/4-103/14 (№ 04/06)A new photoanisotropic-copies-based pattern recognition systemSTCU & SRNSF Targeted Research & Development Initiatives 2014 CompetitionScience & Technology Center in Ukraine (STCU) Project № 6069 and D5 Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia, Project №+D7 MTCU/78/4-103/14 (№ 04/06) 34531 USD (პროექტი № 6069) და 35000 ლარი (პროექტი № MTCU/78/4-103/14 E9(№ 04/06))01.03.2015 - 01.03.2017Barbara Kilosanidze George Kakauridze Yuri Mshvenieradze, Irakli Chaganava, Ana Purtseladze "A new polarimetric method has been developed for image recognition of various objects, which is based on obtaining a photoanisotropic copy of the object image on a polarization-sensitive material and on determining the polarization state of the summary ellipse formed by this copy in the Fraunhofer diffraction area, using a polarization-holographic diffraction element. The polarization state of the summary ellipse uniquely defines the object. A theoretical model of the proposed method was created and an experimental study was carried out to determine the invariance of the method to the displacement, scale change and angular orientation of the objects images to be recognized, by means of the laboratory model of the recognition device created in the project. In order to obtain a photoanisotropic copy, highly effective polarization-sensitive materials with high sensitivity to actinic polarized light, high value of induced anisotropy and reversibility have been obtained in the project. In several highly efficient polarization-sensitive azopolymer materials, we have observed a new effect of vector polyphotochromism induced under exposure by linearly polarized light. The main advantage of the proposed method lies in the removal of high criticality regarding a scale change, displacement and angular orientation of the object during recognition. One of the advantages is aso the parallel processing of the entire array of information on the object, and not the point-by-point processing of information, as in digital recognition methods. The proposed method has not been implemented until now, and such an approach to the object recognition task is innovative and promising, and can be used for creating recognition devices for various purposes in robotics, navigation systems, criminalistics, etc. " "During the implementation of the project, the following results were obtained: A theoretical model of object image recognition by using photoanisotropic copies has been developed, which is based on the determination of the polarization state of the integral ellipse in the Fraunhofer diffraction area. In order a theoretical model to be developed, the scalar Fourier transform has been generalized when operating with Jones vectors, the formation of the field in the Fraunhofer diffraction area is considered. The modification of the technology for obtaining polarization-sensitive materials necessary for obtaining photoanisotropic copies has been carried out. Highly efficient side-chain type materials with high sensitivity to actinic polarized light, high values of induced anisotropy and gyrotropy, as well as high reversibility have been obtained through the immobilization of polymer matrix and azochromophore molecules. A new vector photochromic effect has been identified and investigated in the obtained materials. A laboratory model of a dynamic identification device has been developed by means of recording, erasing and probing photoanisotropic copy of the images of an object to be detected, as well as determining the Stokes parameters of the polarization integral ellipse in the Fraunhofer diffraction area. Complete automation of the entire process of write-erase and Stokes parameter determination was carried out. Only one polarization-holographic diffraction element developed by us is used to determine the polarization state of the intergral ellipse. Simultaneous measurement of the intensities of the four diffraction orders using photodetectors allows a complete analysis of the polarization state of the ellipse (determination of all four Stokes parameters) using the developed formulas and software. The optical scheme of the calibration system has been developed and the polarization-holographic element calibration was carried out using light beams with a predetermined polarization state. Appropriate software for complete analysis of the polarization state has been developed. It is accepted that the accuracy of a single measurement of the beams diffracted on the element is 0.4%, and the accuracy of obtaining the values of the Stokes parameter is 0.6%. The quantitative value of the resolution of the laboratory model is 14 lines/mm, which corresponds to the international system for determining the resolution of information input and output on a flatbed dpi, and in our case is about 340 dots per inch. It is established that for the used laboratory model the method is invariant to the displacement and scale changes of the recognized object within 5%, and to the angular orientation - to the rotation of the image of the object at an angle less than 30 degrees. The values of the intensities of the diffraction orders of the integral ellipse on the polarization-holographic element and the corresponding Stokes parameters were determined. A database has been compiled while identifying different objects: geometric figures, letters of the Latin alphabet and numbers, pentamino-type objects of equal square and different shapes, different fingerprints and others. The change of Stokes parameters during observation of three-dimensional objects from different perspectives is investigated. The obtained results also reveal the informative value of the polarization state of the integral ellipse. Research and evaluation of the factors affecting the accuracy of the method in the recognition of objects of different complexityhas been carried out. The main advantage of the proposed method lies in the removal of high criticality regarding object scale change, displacement and angular orientation during recognition. The proposed method has not been implemented until now, and such an approach to the task of object recognition is innovative and promising, and can be used to create recognition devices for various purposes. " "1. A theoretical model of the object image recognition task using photoanisotropic copies has been developed. 2. The modification of the technology of obtaining polarization-sensitive materials was carried out for obtaining materials with high reversibility and with short times of writing/erasing photoanisotropic copy, determining the characteristics of the materials, including reaction functions. 3. A photometric scheme for measuring the polarization state of an integral ellipse based on a polarization-holographic element has been developed. 4. Appropriate software is created. 5. A laboratory model of the recognition device has been created, its parameters have been determined and the resolution capability has been determined when recognizing different images, a database has been created. 6. The invariance to displacement, scale and angular orientation of the recognized object was experimentally confirmed. 7. The research and evaluation of the factors affecting the accuracy of the method in the recognition of objects of different complexity was carried out. 8. 6 articles have been published in international refereed scientific journals and materials of the International conferences; participation in 5 International scientific conferences. 9. 1 dissertation has been defended for the PhD degree. "
AR/209/6-120/14Development of universal polarization-holographic spectro-polarimeter for studying astronomical objects2014 State Scientific Grants Competition for Applied Research+C5Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia228000 ლარი27.04.2015 - 27.04.2017 Barbara Kilosanidze George H4Kakauridze, Irakli Chaganava, Vazha Kulijanishvili, Temur Kvernadze, Giorgi Kurkhuli, David Khutsishvili "An innovative astropolarimetric method has been developed and a laboratory model of a compact, real-time, low-instrumental polarization universal imaging Stokes spectropolarimeter has been created. In this spectropolarimeter only one optical element - the integral polarization-holographic diffraction element developed by us.is used for the complete analysis of the polarization state of light (for determining all four Stokes parameters). In the process of diffraction, such an element splits the light falling on it into orthogonal circular and linear bases. Simultaneous measurement of the intensities of the four orders of diffraction formed by the element at all points of the image of the object, enables all four Stokes parameters to be determined in real time, using the formulas we have obtained. And this, using the software created in the project, allows us to obtain the distribution of polarization states on the image of the extended astronomical object in real time, taking into account the fluctuations of the polarization state, as well as the dispersion of this distribution. The duration of the analysis is limited only by the exposure time, as well as the computer processing time and the speed of the digital receivers. The optical scheme of the system of calibration of the polarization-holographic element has been developed and the polarization-holographic diffraction element calibration was carried out using light beams with a predetermined polarization state and the standard star Vega. It is obtained that the accuracy of measuring intensities of the orders of diffraction on the element is 0.4%, and the accuracy of obtaining Stokes parameter values is 0.6%. In order to record highly efficient and stable polarization-holographic diffraction elements, the technology of obtaining polarization-sensitive materials was modified by strengthening the connection between the polymer matrix and the azochromophore molecules. We have observed and investigated the effect of vector photochromism in highly efficient polarization-sensitive materials. Spectropolarimeter was tested on various astronomical objects (standard stars, selected areas of the Moon, solar corona and active formations). The spectropolarimeter was combined with different types of telescopes of the Abastumni Astrophysical Observatory through special adapters. The Stokes spectropolarimeter is compact, lightweight, simple in construction, and relatively inexpensive, and can be easily set on both ground-based, orbiting, and space-based telescopes. " "During the implementation of the project, the following results were obtained: A laboratory model of the universal, compact polarization-holographic Stokes spectropolarimeter has been developed and created. For the complete analysis of the state of polarization in the spectropolarimeter (for determination of all four Stokes parameters), an integral polarization-holographic element developed by us is used. In the process of diffraction, the element decomposes light falling on it into orthogonal circular and linear bases. The simultaneous measurement of the intensities of the four orders of diffraction formed by the element allows us all four Stokes parameters to be determined with the formulas obtained by us, at all points of the object's image at the same time and in a real time. And this, using the software created within the project, allows us to obtain a real-time picture of the distribution of the polarization state on the object image, taking into account its fluctuations. The timre of the analysis is limited only by the exposure time, as well as the computer processing time and the speed of the digital receiver. An optical device for recording polarization-holographic elements was created and polarization-holographic elements were obtained. The optical scheme of the calibration system for polarization-holographic diffraction elements was developed and the calibration of the elements was carried out using light beams with a predetermined polarization state. Appropriate software for complete polarization state analysis has been developed. It is shown that the accuracy of measuring the intensities of diffraction orders is 0.4%, and the accuracy of obtaining Stokes parameter values is 0.6%. In order to record highly efficient and stable polarization-holographic diffraction elements, the technology of obtaining polarization-sensitive materials was modified by strengthening the connection between the polymer matrix and the azochromophore molecules. The characteristics of the obtained materials were determined. We observed and investigated the effect of vector photochromism in highly efficient polarization-sensitive materials. Research and evaluation of the factors affecting the accuracy of Stokes parameters determination was carried out during laboratory testing and observation of various astronomical objects. It was found that the increase in error is caused by the following factors: the non-uniformity of the thickness of the material used to record the element, which is caused by the manual coting of the emulsion layer on the glass substrate; The quality of the optical details used in the optical scheme of recording element and the Stokes spectropolarimeter does not allow us to achieve a measurement accuracy of 0.1% (for a single measurement); The non-uniformity of the laser beam used in element recording. The use of a polarization-holographic element for the analysis of the polarization state of light, is fundamentally new, and the spectropolarimeter created on its basis has the following advantages: Only one optical element is used for the analysis of light polarization - a polarization-holographic diffraction element; The spectropolarimeter does not have moving or electronically controlled optical parts; The spectropolarimeter does not have internal reflections, which greatly reduces the instrumental polarization and increases the measurement accuracy; It has a fairly wide spectral range (500-1600 nm) and angular dispersion; It is universal, since it can be used on different types of telescopes through special adapters; It allows to determine the distribution of polarization states on extended astronomical objects, as well as the fluctuations of the polarization state and the dispersion of this distribution in a real time. Such a spectropolarimeter is compact, light, relatively simple in construction, and relatively inexpensive, which makes it easy to place on Earth, as well as on orbital and space telescopes. Polarization-holographic imaging Stokes spectro-polarimeter was tested and technical parameters were determined by observing various astronomical objects, such as standard stars and those celestial bodies whose polarization is determined: selected areas of the Moon, solar formations, bright planets, the Crab Nebula and the Andromeda Galaxy. In particular, the results of the first polarimetric measurements of solar formations with variable polarization state - spicules have been obtained. " "1. The modification of the technology of obtaining high efficient stable polarization-sensitive materials for obtaining integral polarization-holographic diffraction elements has been carried out, which involves increasing the polarity of the azo dye molecule and the polymer matrix to strengthen the interactions between these molecules. 2. A phenomenological theoretical model was developed, which describes correlations between the physico-chemical structures of objects and the distribution of the polarization state. 3. A precision optical scheme for recording polarization-holographic diffraction elements was created and a study of the diffraction process was carried out on the obtained elements. 4. Appropriate software has been developed. 5. An imaging Stokes spectropolarimeter was developed, its calibration was carried out through the created precision optical scheme. 6. The error of the spectropolarimeter was determined by observing the standard scales. 7. Polarimetric observations of the solar corona and active formations and determination of the spatial polarization state distribution were carried out. 8. 11 articles were published in International refereed scientific journals and International conferences proceedings. Participation in 8 international conferences. 9. 1 thesis has been defended for obtaining the PhD degree. "
AR-19-1154Real-time universal polarization-holographic spectroellipsometer2019 State Scientific Grants Competition for Applied Research+C5Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia389800 ლარი23.12.2019 - 23.12.2022Barbara Kilosanidze George Kakauridze, Irakli Chaganava, Yuri Mshvenieradze, Irine Kobulashvili, Nino Kuntseva-Gabashvili It is proposed to develop an innovative and universal ellipsometric method based on a complete analysis of the polarization state of light reflected from an object in real time by using only one analyzing element - an integral polarization-holographic diffraction element created by us. Such an element allows real-time determining all the four Stokes parameters by simultaneous measurement of the intensities of beams diffracted on the element. A theoretical model of this method is developed, which enables the relationship between the ellipsometric and optical parameters and the intensities of the beams diffracted on the element to be established. The ellipsometric and optical parameters are determined using the formulas and appropriate software created by us in the project. The resulting high efficient and stable polarization-sensitive material is used to record an element with high diffraction efficiency. Based on this element, a working laboratory model of the polarization-holographic spectral ellipsometer has been developed and created. The laboratory model will be tested on test samples. The resolution, sensitivity, accuracy and speed of this model are determined. The field of application of the laboratory model will be determined and its universality will be demonstrated. The proposed method has not been implemented in ellipsometry until now, and this approach is innovative and promising. The spectral ellipsometer based of this method will be relatively simple, accurate, compact and cheap. The Project will be ended on December 23 2022 Results of two stages of the project: 1. The theoretical model of the proposed spectral ellipsometry method has been developed. 2. The technology of obtaining polarization-sensitive materials created in the laboratory was modified. 3. The receiving technology of highly efficient polarization-holographic diffraction element was modified. 4. A laboratory model of the spectral ellipsometer was created; It was debugged and calibrated. 5. Appropriate software was developed. 6. Trainings were held on the strategy and methods of commercialization of scientific technologies. 7. 5 scientific articles were published; presentations were made at 4 International conferences. 8. Patent materials were sent in Sakpatent (case number 15951/1, our number 85/GE).
?MMF/GSMA Dosimetry Program Phase II: “Developing a Thermal Exemptions Rationale for Low-Power Transmitters“Without competition, grant under contractThe Mobile Manufacturers Forum (MMF) and the GSM Association (GSMA)/2005-2010Revaz Zaridze Revaz Zaridze, Mikheil Prishvin, Liana Manukyan, Veriko Jeladze, Lali Bibilashvili The main objective of the project was to determine the maximum temperature distribution and SAR values for different radiation cases at 300, 450, 900, 1450, 1900 and 2450, 3700 and 6000 MHz, using realistic human models and the FDTD metho The project considered multiple EM exposure scenarios with dipole, monopolar, PIFA, IFA and PATCH antennas at 300, 450, 900, 1450, 1900 and 2450, 3700 and 6000 MHz frequencies and the distances 5, 10 and 20 mm between the antenna and the human head model. The calculations were performed using the software package FDTDLab and the values ​​of 1g and 10g SAR and temperature distribution in human head tissues were determined. 1. The lowest values ​​of temperature rise are observed at frequencies of 900 and 1900 MHz. 2. Temperature rise was considered for all antennas with maximum value from 0.1 ° C to 7.78 ° C. The cases where high values ​​of temperature rise were obtained were studied separately. At a frequency of 6000 MHz, values ​​higher than the temperature increase norm are obtained. 3. The penetration depth at low frequencies is large, and a focusing of electromagnetic field was also observed, which was concentrated at one of the local points of the model. Hot spots are also observed in the brain. Detailed analysis showed that their locations change with the movement of the antenna. Their dimensions and location depend on the curvature of its surface. 4. A good correlation is observed everywhere between 10 g SAR and temperature rise. 5. Due to the asymmetric radiation pattern, the monopole antennas caused a higher temperature increase compared to the dipole antennas. 6. In the case of Patch antennas, the values ​​of the higher temperature rise are observed during the "inverted" orientation than in the case of the standard orientation. 7. It has been shown that "inverted" oriented antennas are similar to dipole antennas. 8. The local maximum of the temperature rise is observed at a frequency of 2450 MHz. The penetration depth at this frequency is greater than 3700 MHz and above. 9. Preliminary calculations have shown that the presence of a hand affects the radiation pattern. The hand directs the energy of the electromagnetic field along it, causing the value of the temperature rise in the head to decrease dramatically. 10. A resonance event is observed at a distance of 20 mm for the IFA antenna, which causes a sudden sharp rise in temperature. 11. Higher temperature rise values ​​are obtained for IFA antenna than for PATCH and PIFA antennas. Resonance for the IFA antenna is observed at a distance of 20 mm. 12. The results obtained at a frequency of 6000 MHz are unstable. Even a small change in the input parameters may significantly change the received distribution.
#30/09“Study of RF exposure influence and EM pollution”Applied Research Grant CompetitionShota Rustaveli National Science Foundation160 000 ლარი05.2013- 05.2015Mikheil Prishvin Mikheil Prishvin, Revaz Zaridze, Veriko Jeladze, Lali Bibilashvi The aim of the project was to study the effects of radio frequency electromagnetic radiation on human models through computer modeling in a variety of physical conditions: namely, when the user is being in open space and in the building. Heterogeneous realistic human models (woman and child) were used to study RF-EM irradiation on humans in open space, and the study was conducted using the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method. The source of the EM field was a dipole antenna and a plane wave at 300 MHz, 1900 MHz and 3700 MHz frequencies . The field energy (SAR) absorbed by human tissues and the temperature rise induced by this absorption were calculated. To study the effects of this radiation on a user in the building, a homogeneous human model was used, and a computer simulation was performed using the Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS). Cases where the EM field source is located in the room and outside it (representing the base station antenna) at 300, 900 and 1800 MHz frequencies were considered. The exposure scenarios with different human locations in the room, the transparency of the walls were discussed and the distribution of the near field inside and outside the room was calculated, as well as the resonant properties of the room were studied. The distribution of SAR in the human model was also calculated. The following results were obtained within the project: SAR peak values ​​and temperature rise values are lower for low frequencies and higher for high frequencies in the surface layer of the body. The ​​SAR and temperature rise values are higher for the child model due to the child's body size and physical properties of the tissues. The Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS)was developed to investigate the effects of this radiation on an user in the building, and a new MAS-based algorithm was introduced to model any desired transparency surfaces. A software package was developed to investigate large-scale EM exposure scenarios. It has been shown that a resonant field is formed in the room at low transparency of the room walls, causing the SAR increase almost tenfold in the human model than in the case of high transparency of the walls. The distribution of the EM field in the room and the SAR values in the head also depend on the locations of human (in the room) and the EM Source; When an user is near to a window, the EM field energy absorbed in it is much smaller than the case, when it is located in the room, far from the window. Resonant properties of the room were studied based on frequency characteristic and resonant frequencies were found. In the case of a low transparency coefficient of the room walls at these frequencies, the field value in the room and also the SAR in the human head increases by one or two orders. In order to validate the results obtained with MAS, the results calculated by MAS and FDTD method were compared for several cases and a good correlation was obtained. Recommendations have been developed to avoid the dangers caused by cell phone radiation.
YS15_2.1.2_56The Study of Human EM Exposure in Small and Large-Scale ScenariosYoung Scientists Research Grant CompetitionShota Rustaveli National Science Foundation 46799 ლარი 12.2015-12.2017Veriko Jeladze Veriko Jeladze The project focused on the study of the effects of electromagnetic radiation on humans in a variety of physical conditions, in small and large-scale radiation scenarios, using computer modeling, FDTD (Finite-Difference Time-Domain) and MAS (Method of Auxiliary Sources) Heterogeneous realistic human models (woman and child) were used to study RF-EM irradiation on humans in open space, and the study was conducted using the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method. The source of the EM field was a dipole antenna and a plane wave at 300 MHz, 1900 MHz and 3700 MHz frequencies . The field energy (SAR) absorbed by human tissues and the temperature rise induced by this absorption were calculated. To study the effects of this radiation on a user in the building, a homogeneous human model was used, and a computer simulation was performed using the Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS). Cases where the EM field source is located in the room and outside it (representing the base station antenna) at 300, 900 and 1800 MHz frequencies were considered. The exposure scenarios with different human locations in the room, the transparency of the walls were discussed and the distribution of the near field inside and outside the room was calculated, as well as the resonant properties of the room were studied. The distribution of SAR in the human model was also calculated. 1) The conducted studies have shown that the presence of hands in the vicinity of mobile phones (dielectric objects) and their different positions significantly alters the radiation pattern, and consequently, changes the values ​​of SAR and temperature rise in woman and child tissues. 2) Different hand touches on the phone drastically affect the antenna matching with free space. If the phone is held by palm and touches a large area of ​​the hand, then the phone antenna is bad matched to the impedance of free space (rather than when the phone is held by fingers) because the most of part of the radiated energy is absorbed in hand. 3) A correlation was established between the S11 parameter of the antenna radiation (which describes the antenna matching with free space) and the SAR. 4) A new approach based on the auxiliary radiation method (MAS) has been introduced to investigate the effects of EM radiation on a user located in a car and to model the earth surface under the car based on the mirror image method. A software package based on this methodology was created. 5) The obtained results showed that resonant phenomena can occur inside the metal surface of the car at the communication frequency range; The surface of the car acts as a resonator and amplifies the amplitude of the electromagnetic field emitted by the mobile phone, resulting in a dramatically increased field energy (SAR) absorbed into human tissues compared to the presence of human in open space. 6) The resonant properties of the car were studied and resonant frequencies were found. The field amplitude at the resonant frequencies increases drastically in the car, causing the SAR increase 4-5 times in human tissues. 7) Recommendations were developed to avoid the dangers caused by the use of mobile and other means of communication.
17_629Study of the antiepileptic potential of quercetin-bound magnetic nanoparticles in animal models of epilepsyCall of State Science Grants for Fundamental ResearchShota Rustaveli National Scientific Foundation193 362 ლარი19/12/2017-19/06/2020Nanuli Doreulii Besarion Partsvania, Manana Chikovani, Buciko Chkharishvili, Marim Kurasbediani Among the natural compounds used in medicine, which treat various types of neurological disorders by modulating reactive oxygen and inflammatory processes, quercetin has an important place. Despite its many biological effects, the action of quercetin in the CNS is limited due to its poor water solubility and poor bioavailability. Substance delivery systems based on nanotechnology represent a new effective and promising approach increasing the bioavailability of substances. Nanotechnology makes possible the directed movement of substances and slow release in the relevant tissues. THe effects of nanoparticles are not described in Ttse. The aim of this project was to study the effects of quercetin in an animal model of TCE. The formation of epileptic neural circuits (epileptogenesis) is characterized by plastic changes occurring at different levels of the central nervous system (CNS). Among the antioxidants, flavonoids of plant origin deserve special attention. Among the natural compounds used in medicine, which treat various types of neurological disorders by modulating reactive oxygen and inflammatory processes, quercetin occupies an important place. Despite its many biological effects, quercetin has limited action in the CNS due to its poor water solubility and poor bioavailability. Nanoparticles, including MNN, are actively used against tumors today. Although the effects of MNN targeted effects on tumors and other diseases have been shown, their positive effects are not described in the TSE. The aim of the present project was to study the effects of quercetin in the animal model of TTE. This is the first attempt to target flavonoids as an antiepileptic drug at the epileptic locus. To achieve this goal, a complex study was designed, which involved the implementation of tasks in several key areas. It has been shown that quercetin-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles, by combining fluorescence and magnetic nanoparticles, significantly alter the optical parameters of the nanocomposition, such as fluorescence intensity, spectral location and shape of fluorescence radiation. This drug delivery system is a reliable means of in vivo monitoring of Fe3O4 nanoparticles labeled with fluorescent dye and functionalized with therapeutic drugs and is acceptable for such complex and delicate biological environments as tumor cells and the blood-brain barrier. Behavioral experiments have shown that the external static magnetic field (GVV), like Mnn, does not independently change animal behavior. Electrophysiological experiments have shown that this effect does not change the mean amplitude and frequency of hippocampal neuronal activity in control animals. Morphological experiments have shown that the quantitative values ​​of iron inserts under unilateral exposure to the magnetic field increase reliably compared to the contralateral side of the magnetic field, which is a measure of the ease with which the magnetic field moves in the MNN brain. Accordingly, intravenous injection of QMNN into the tail causes a decrease in the amplitude of neuronal activity in the CA1 field of the hippocampus on the GSM exposure side. Pre-systemic administration of QMN against the background of GSM exposure causes a decrease in both the duration and frequency of epileptiform discharges generated by intrahippocampal injection. Quercetin independently reduces the duration of epileptiform relief. Introduction of C-MN in animals with epileptic status (KMS) of Cain acid in the setting of GSM exposure leads to correction of impaired memory induced by epilepsy. Systemically administered quercetin induces an increase in the amplitude of total background neuronal activity in KM models and has no effects on this observer in control rats. The magnetic field in the presence of magnetic field statistically significantly reduces the amplitude of the background activity of neurons.
FR/617/7-270/13Influence of flavonoids of Georgian endemic grape variety "Saperavi" on brain functions due to epileptic status of cain acid in rats.Call of State Science Grants for Fundamental ResearchShota Rustaveli National Scientific Foundation160 000 ლარი4/04/2015-4/04/2017Nanuli Doreulii Besarion Partsvania, Manana Chikovani, Buciko Chkharishvili, Marim Kurasbediani The analysis showed that feeding the flavonoids extracted from saferavi effectively prevented the increased amount of malondialdehyde (an end product of lipid oxidation) in the brains of aged rats compared to young rats. In addition, the administration of flavonoids isolated from saferavi as a dietary supplement effectively reversed the memory impairment induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine in young rats (8-week-old rats). Biochemical study of this active fraction using TLC / HPLC methods revealed its multicomponent phenolic content (flavonoid glycosides and aglycones). A T-labyrinth test was performed on white laboratory rats to evaluate the effects of flavonoids isolated from Georgian grape varieties on spatial memory. Feeding of flavonoids isolated from Saperavi grapes of adult rats (28-32 weeks of age) (25 mg / kg per day for 5 days) resulted in the correction of age-related disorders of spatial memory. Analysis of data from biochemical experiments showed that feeding with flavonoids released from Saperavi also effectively inhibited increased levels of malondialdehyde (the end product of lipid oxidation) in the brains of older rats compared to younger rats. In addition, the use of flavonoids released from Saperavi as a dietary supplement effectively restores memory impairment induced by a single intraperitoneal injection in young rats (8-week-old rats). In addition, the same concentration of flavonoids does not cause a change in normal learning dynamics in control group rats. Comparison of the effects of flavonoids released from Georgian grape varieties with the effects of the known antioxidants quercetin (50 mg / kg) and catechin (25 mg / kg), with the effects, revealed its higher neuroprotective potential in the spatial memory test. Open field experiments have shown that pre-feeding rats with Georgian grape flavonoids does not change emotional status. Based on the above, it can be concluded that pre-feeding of rats with flavonoids isolated from Saperavi grape varieties has a positive effect on plastic processes related to the hippocampus and increases the antioxidant capacity of the rat brain. “Saperavi" flavonoids can be considered as one of the restraining factors of epilepsy.
GNSF-l- 6/89Georgian grape flavonoids: biochemical properties and physiological effectsCall of State Science Grants for Fundamental ResearchShota Rustaveli National Scientific Foundation150 000 ლარი21/01/2010-21/01/2013Nanuli Doreulii Besarion Partsvania, Manana Chikovani, Buciko Chkharishvili, Marim Kurasbediani Georgian grape flavonoids were studied: biochemical properties and physiological effects According to the literature, flavonoids, which are polyphenolic compounds of plant origin, are characterized by the ability to bind strong antioxidants and free radicals and have a positive effect in terms of correction of brain pathologies and age-related disorders. The interest of this study was biochemical characterization of flavonoids isolated from Georgian endemic grape varieties and study of physiological effects. Using a Zaprometov method modified from Georgian endemic grapes, in particular Saperavi, we isolated a fraction rich in flavonoids. ქართული ყურძნის ფლავონოიდები იწვევენ საკვლევ ვირთაგვებში სივრცული სწავლების გაუმჯობესებას
G-1318Influence of Orexinergic System on Epileptic Activity of the BrainISTC callInternational Scientific Technology Center ISTC165 000 აშშ დოლარი18/01/2009-18.01.2011Nanuli Doreulii Besarion Partsvania, Zauri Chahnakia, Givi Didebashvili, Manana Chikovani The orexinergic system reduces the epileptic activity of the brain According to the World Health Organization, epilepsy is considered to be one of the most common chronic neurological diseases. Epileptic seizures are the result of abnormal synchronous discharge of neurons. Cain acid - an excitatory neurotoxin - is most commonly used today to create an animal model of epilepsy. Cainate-glutamate receptors are abundant in the CA3 field of the hippocampus, making this area of ​​the brain the best target for cain acid, and the hippocampus has the lowest seizure threshold in the entire brain. Orexynergic neurons, the expression of which is noted in the lateral hypothalamus, provide projections throughout the brain and play an important role in normal or pathophysiological processes. The role of the orexinergic system in the ongoing plastic processes in the hippocampus is well known, although there are differences of opinion about its involvement in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. The aim of this project was to investigate the effects of orexin on neuronal activity induced by intrahippocampal electrical stimulation in the hippocampal CA1 / CA3 fields in control and synaptic facilitation models of cain acid epilepsy. Experiments have shown that the amplitude of single discharge induced by intrahippocampal irritation in the model of cain acid epilepsy increases in the CA1 / CA3 fields of the hippocampus, although a statistically significant decrease was observed in CA1. By activating orexin-A orexin 1 receptors in the CA1 field, increases the amplitude of the induced responses and leads to the potential for pairwise facilitation. The effects of orexin were different in the control and epilepsy models. In control rats, orexin caused an increase in CA1, a decrease in CA3, whereas in the epilepsy model it did not change the picture before application. The paired facilitation test showed that the changes induced by cain acid are postsynaptic localization and the effects of orexin are different because of changes in the control or norm and the pathogenesis of epilepsy due to this pathology. Recommendations for the use of orexinergic systems for the treatment of epilepsy have been developed
G-1187Research of Different Frequency Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) Effects on the Neuron.ISTC callInternational Scientific Technology Center ISTC86 000 აშშ დოლარი01/03/20010-01/06/2008Besarion Partsvania Tamaz Sulaberidze, Levan Shoshiashvili Zurab Modebadze 900 MHz electromagnetic fields used in cellular communication cause suppression of neuron bioelectrical activity 900MHz electromagnetic fields used in cellular communication systems cause inhibition of neuron bioelectrical activity. The electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure limits are based on the avoidance of excessive increase in body temperature or local increase in partial body temperature. SAR limits are based on whole body exposure levels of 0.4 W / kg for workers and 0.08 W / kg for the general population. Since the beginning of the Bioelectromagnetism study, the greatest focus has been on the impact on the nervous systems and the brain. Particular attention has been paid to this as mobile terminals are widely used close to the head. Acceptable SAR values ​​for mobile phones should be such that they do not exceed the permissible limits. For Europe, the limit is 2 W / kg for an average SAR of 10 g. For the United States and a number of other countries, the limit is 1.6 W / kg for an average SAR of 1 g. GSM signals consist of an electromagnetic wave of transmitting a frequency with a frequency of 880-915 MHz; which is modulated by rectangular pulses. This introduces the low frequency components into the signal spectrum, this periodicity produces a low frequency component of 8.3 Hz and 217 Hz. In addition, there is a 2-hz periodicity. In this project, we studied the effect of cell phone radiation (900 MHz) on the plasticity of an individual neuron. The study showed that under high SAR conditions the bioelectrical activity of the neuron deteriorates, as do the bioelectric parameters of the action potential. A study has shown that these fields cause disruption of stimulus habitat and a disappearance of the neuron's ability to store information. The recommendation was elaborated to tighten the peak SAR for 900 MHz frequency. Also, remove the 2 Hz frequency used for modulation from the technical characteristics of mobile phones due to their negative impact on a single neuron. A recommendation has been developed to tighten the significance of peak SAR for frequencies up to 900 MHz. Also, remove the 2 Hz frequency used for modulation from the technical characteristics of mobile phones due to their negative impact on a neuron.
06-01-28Investigation of the effect of electromagnetic fields used in SM 1800 on a single neuron Call of State Science Grants for Fundamental ResearchShota Rustaveli National Scientific Foundation133 240 ლარი03/01/2010-03/01/2012Besarion Partsvania Tamaz Sulaberidze, Levan Shoshiashvili Zurab Modebadze Electromagnetic fields used in GSM 1800 cause inhibition of neuron activity The aim of the project was to study the effects of EMFs 1800 MHz used in mobile phones and its low-frequency components on single neuron. Absorption of microwaves causes heating of thee the biological tissue. Overheating is dangerous to health. Permissible thresholds for EMF have been set in different countries. The biological effects of EMF are determined by the specific absorption order (SAR) and the power absorbed by the unit of mass. The distribution of SAR in biological tissue depends on many factors. Because of these factors, energy absorption in the brain is highly uneven. This causes arising of so-called "hot spots" in the brain. In the "hot spots" energy absorption is maximum. At these points the SAR is much higher than the reference levels. The size of the "hot letter" can reach several centimeters. This means that tens of thousands of neurons will be found in this volume. Their irradiation conditions are significantly different from those of other neurons. This problem is not reflected in existing safe dosage manuals. The results obtained in our study show that the electromagnetic fields used in the GSM 1800 negatively affect the functioning of individual neurons. Particularly, it impairs the ability of a neuron to store information. A new computer program was developed, using the FTDT method, which allows us to describe the coupling of an individual neuron to EMF, and calculate the SAR. At the same time determine the increment of the temperature. The results obtained can be used for the international harmonization of mobile phone radiation standards. Recommendations have been developed for the use of low modulation frequencies in mobile GSM 1800 that are safe for neuronal viability.
AR/31/8-314/14New medical device based on near-infrared radiation for early imaging and diagnosis of prostate cancerCall of state scientific grants for applied researchShota Rustaveli National Scientific Foundation177 000 ლარი01/04/2015-01/04/2017Besarion Partsvania Alexandre Khuskivadze, Tamaz Sulaberidze, Nino Phojavidze,Omari Tscintscadze A model for a prostate cancer imaging device has been developed Prostate cancer mortality ranks second in the world after lung cancer mortality in men. There are no symptoms in early stage prostate cancer. Existing methods of diagnosis in most cases fail to detect cancer at an early stage. The final word in diagnostics belongs to biopsy. But when the size of the cancerous tumor is small, the biopsy needle often fails to penetrate the diseased tissue and therefore it is necessary to take several repeated biopsies, causing the patient to suffer. The two main methods of imaging, magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography, are partially invasive. Due to the complexity these methods are used only in specially expensive clinics and cannot be used universally in conventional clinics. On the other hand, these methods do not always detect small cancerous growths. Therefore, the aim of this project was to create a new operating model of a non-invasive, simple medical device that would be able to visualize and diagnose prostate cancer at an early stage. Thus task was successfully performed. The importance of developed devices is as follows: The device allows to make visible prostate cancer. The device is capable of visualizing tumor formations millimeters in size. The device will allowperforming only single biopsy, unlike the existing biopsy method, where 12 points are taken during the first biopsy and 24 or 48 points after subsequent biopsies. It is developed and fabricated working device for visualization of the prostate cancer.
G-2188Investigation into visualization of prostate cancer at early stage of development.ISTC callInternational Scientific Technology Center ISTC127 700 აშშ დოლარი01/03/2016-01/03/2018Besarion Partsvania Alexandre Khuskivadze, Tamaz Sulaberidze, Giorgi Kochiashvili, David Kochiashvili. Ketevan Chubinidze Infrared permeability in cancerous and healthy tissues of the prostate has been studied Tissues are characterized by different permeability to infrared radiation. Normal tissue has the highest permeability; The permeability of malignant tissue is much lower. Tissue permeability of benign prostatic hyperplasia is between normal and cancerous tissues. Experiments have shown that the maximum permeability of these three tissues has the same wavelength - 840 nm. The dependence of infrared light permeability on the thickness of different tissues is studied. It has been shown that the permeability of infrared light depends on the thickness of the prostate tissue. The thicker the specimen, the less transparent it is and vice versa. Experiments have shown that permeability in healthy tissue linearly depends on thickness. As for the cancerous tissue, this dependence is nonlinear. The dependence of permeability on the intensity of infrared light was studied. It has been established that healthy tissue is characterized by maximum resistance to infrared radiation, and cancer tissue is much less permeable.

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Email: tamaz.sulaberidze@gtu.ge

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Staff

Teimuraz Tsabadze

Academic Doctor of Science / Principal Researcher

Revaz Kurdiani

Academic Doctor of Science / Senior Researcher

Ramaz Liparteliani

Academic Doctor of Science / Researcher

Natela Bakhtadze

Academic Doctor of Science / Researcher

Tinatin Lapreshvili

Academic Doctor of Science / Senior Researcher

Zaza Melikishvili

Academic Doctor of Science / Principal Researcher

George Jandieri

Doctor of Science / Principal Researcher

Revaz Tevzadze

Doctor of Science / Principal Researcher

Givi Karumidze

Academic Doctor of Science / Researcher

Nino Sepashvili

Academic Doctor of Science / Senior Researcher

Irakli Skhirtladze

Academic Doctor of Science / Senior Researcher

Vladimer Tarasashvili

Academic Doctor of Science / Senior Researcher

Zeinab Shiolashvili

Academic Doctor of Science / Senior Researcher

David Iobashvili

Academic Doctor of Science / Researcher

Tsisana Zurabishvili

Academic Doctor of Science / Principal Researcher

Giorgi Mumladze

Academic Doctor of Science / Researcher

Besarion Partsvania

Doctor of Science / Principal Researcher

Manana Areshidze

Academic Doctor of Science / Senior Researcher

Iuri Mshvenieradze

Academic Doctor of Science / Researcher

Zaira Berikishvili

Academic Doctor of Science / Researcher

Goderdzi Lezhava

Academic Doctor of Science / Principal Researcher

Roland Bakuradze

Academic Doctor of Science / Researcher

Nikoloz Margiani

Doctor of Science / Principal Researcher

Tariel Ebralidze

Doctor of Science / Principal Researcher

Nadia Ebralidze

Academic Doctor of Science / Researcher

Nikoloz Chkhaidze

Academic Doctor of Science / Researcher

Besik Chiqvinidze

Academic Doctor of Science / Senior Researcher

Tsotne Kutalia

Academic Doctor of Science / Senior Researcher

Zurab Vardosanidze

Academic Doctor of Science / Principal Researcher

Vakhtang Zhghamadze

Academic Doctor of Science / Researcher

Valentina Shaverdova

Academic Doctor of Science / Senior Researcher

Guram Donadze

Academic Doctor of Science / Senior Researcher

Valerian Jiqia

Academic Doctor of Science / Senior Researcher

Veriko Kinkladze

Academic Doctor of Science / Senior Researcher

Zaza Jaliashvili

Academic Doctor of Science / Principal Researcher

Revaz Grigolia

Doctor of Science / Principal Researcher

Khatuna Tserodze

Academic Doctor of Science / Researcher

David Jishiashvili

Doctor of Science / Principal Researcher

Rusiko Janelidze

Academic Doctor of Science / Senior Researcher

Aleksandre Jishiashvili

Academic Doctor of Science / Senior Researcher

Irina Kamkamidze

Academic Doctor of Science / Researcher

Teimuraz Gogoladze

Academic Doctor of Science / Researcher

Lia Kutaladze

Academic Doctor of Science / Researcher

Rapiel Tkhinvaleli

Academic Doctor of Science / Senior Researcher

Giorgi Bolotashvili

Academic Doctor of Science / Senior Researcher

Giorgi Kakauridze

Academic Doctor of Science / Principal Researcher

Goderdzi pruidze

Academic Doctor of Science / Researcher

Vakhtang Edilashvili

Academic Doctor of Science / Researcher

Naira Bekauri

Academic Doctor of Science / Researcher

Zurab Alimbarashvili

Academic Doctor of Science / Researcher

Maia Elizbarashvili

Academic Doctor of Science / Senior Researcher

Zurab Adamia

Doctor of Science / Senior Researcher

Oleg Gogolin

Academic Doctor of Science / Principal Researcher

Helen Tsitsishvili

Doctor of Science / Principal Researcher

Irakli Avalishvili

Academic Doctor of Science / Researcher

Andro Chanishvili

Academic Doctor of Science / Principal Researcher

Liana Sharashidze

Academic Doctor of Science / Researcher

Shalva Kekutia

Academic Doctor of Science / Principal Researcher

Tea Todua

Academic Doctor of Science / Principal Researcher

Otar Tavdishvili

Academic Doctor of Science / Principal Researcher

Svetlana Tavzarashvili

Academic Doctor of Science / Researcher

Tamaz Sulaberidze

Academic Doctor of Science / Principal Researcher

Lali Devadze

Academic Doctor of Science / Principal Researcher

Barbara Kilosanidze

Academic Doctor of Science / Principal Researcher

Shorena akhobadze

Academic Doctor of Science / Researcher

Marina Aronishidze

Academic Doctor of Science / Researcher

Irakli Nakhutsrishvishvili

Academic Doctor of Science / Senior Researcher

Tornike Gagnidze

Academic Doctor of Science / Researcher

Tamaz Medoidze

Academic Doctor of Science / Principal Researcher

Natela Papunashvili

Academic Doctor of Science / Senior Researcher

Tengiz Zorikov

Academic Doctor of Science / Senior Researcher

Iujin Blagidze

Academic Doctor of Science / Researcher

Ana Purtseladze

Academic Doctor of Science / Senior Researcher

Nino Maisuradze

Academic Doctor of Science / Researcher

Maia Balakhashvili

Academic Doctor of Science / Senior Researcher

Gia Petriashvili

Academic Doctor of Science / Principal Researcher

Ketevan Chubinidze

Academic Doctor of Science / Researcher

Grigor Giorgadze

Doctor of Science / Principal Researcher

Veriko Jeladze

Academic Doctor of Science / Researcher

Vagner Jiqia

Academic Doctor of Science / Senior Researcher

Iamze Kvartskhava

Academic Doctor of Science / Researcher

VLADIMER MIKELASHVILI

Academic Doctor of Science / Principal Researcher

Tinatin Bukia

Academic Doctor of Science / Senior Researcher

Irakli Javakhishvili

Academic Doctor of Science / Researcher

Nino Makhatadze

Academic Doctor of Science / Senior Researcher

Pridon Alshibabia

Academic Doctor of Science / Researcher

Liana Sanablidze

Doctor of Science / Researcher

Orest Kvitsiani

Academic Doctor of Science / Researcher

Elene Kalandia

Academic Doctor of Science / Senior Researcher

Jano Markhulia

Academic Doctor of Science / Principal Researcher

Irakli Chaganava

Academic Doctor of Science / Principal Researcher

archil Chirakadze

Doctor of Science / Senior Researcher

Nino Fonjavidze

Doctor of Science / Researcher